23. Which of the following statements is correct?A. More than one Pearson correlation coefficient ca

23. Which of the following statements is correct?A. More than one Pearson correlation coefficient can be calculated from the same scatterplot. B. Only one Pearson correlation coefficient can be calculated from one scatterplot. C. A scatterplot will show a higher relationship than the correlation coefficient calculated from it. D. A scatterplot will show a lower relationship than the correlation coefficient calculated from it.24. When random sampling was not used, probabilities obtained from inferential statistical procedures should:A. not be reported B. be treated only as crude indices C. be reported only if less than .01 D. be used as the primary index of the importance of results25. A researcher discussing the information in item #19 could be criticized for:A. making too much of a trivial relationship B. incorrect use of inferential statistics C. an error in computation D. all of the above31. Which of the following threats are not controlled by any of the designs discussed in Chapter 13?A. Subject characteristics and maturation B. Testing and history C. Implementer and data collector bias D. Data collector characteristics and loss of subjects32. Single-subject designs are used primarily:A. when group designs are not appropriate B. when data collection requires little training C. in studies involving children D. when data are collected over time34. The major disadvantage of the A-B-A design compared to other single-subject designs relates to:A. implementation B. instrumentation C. generalization D. ethics36. The multiple-baseline design is typically used because:A. a second baseline is unethical or impossible B. extraneous conditions are expected to change C. only one subject is available D. time is limited37. The number of data points in a phase should be:A. as many as is practical B. as many as needed to establish a stable trend C. no more than five D. determined by the behavior being studied39. Discriminant function analysis is used to:A. reduce the number of variables to a more manageable level B. simplify the calculation of a multiple correlation coefficient C. predict group membership from two or more quantitative variables D. describe the relationships among several categorical variables41. What do multiple regression, path analysis, and factor analysis all have in common?A. They all result in a prediction equation. B. They all are techniques for controlling threats to internal validity. C. They all use the same basic equation. D. They all begin with the correlations among all pairs of variables.42. Partial correlation is a procedure for:A. simplifying the determination of a regression line B. reducing the number of variables to a more manageable level C. controlling a subject characteristics threat D. exploring theoretical cause-effect relationships43. A correlation coefficient of .50 is considered satisfactory for:A. test-retest reliability B. observer agreement C. validity D. individual prediction44. Socioeconomic status would be considered an alternative explanation for a correlation of .60 between interest and achievement if:A. the correlations between socioeconomic status and the other variables were .10 and .20 B. the correlations between socioeconomic status and the other variables were .90 and .10 C. the correlations between socioeconomic status and the other variables were .50 and .40 D. the correlations between socioeconomic status and the other variables were .10 and .8048. Evaluating specific threats to internal validity in a causal-comparative study involves all of the following except:A. identifying factors related to the variable(s) on which groups are compared B. determining whether each factor is controlled by random assignment C. judging whether comparison groups are likely to differ on these factors D. prioritizing the seriousness of identified threats49. Which of the following hypotheses can only be studied by using the causal-comparative method?A. Participation in a values clarification program will improve self-esteem. B. Girls have higher self-esteem than boys. C. Students high in self-esteem achieve higher grades when they attend college. D. Self-esteem decreases between ages 8 and 18.50. A comparison of delinquents vs. nondelinquents might be made in order to:A. determine probable factors leading to delinquency B. predict future behavior of delinquents C. test a theory on the development of delinquency D. all of the above