A student takes the following steps during an experiment:
Measure 15mL concentrated HCl (student uses a 50mL graduated cylinder)
Weigh -4.0 grams of tert-butyl chloride (student weighs in a 25 mL beaker on balance #3)
Transfer HCl and tert-butly chloride to a 125mL separatory funnel (student pours both liquids from their containers in to the funnel)
Swirl the sep funnel for 5 minutes, shake and vent for 15 minutes (student shakes and vents as directed)
Place the funnel in the ring support and allow layers to separate (student waits, sees a few bubbles in the layers, decides to continue)
Drain the lower layer to waste, drain and dry the top layer with CaCl2 (student collects top layer in a small clean beaker and adds CaCl2 to dry)
Gravity filter through fluted filter paper into a clean beaker of known mass (student filters as directed)
When the student calculates the % yield from the reaction, it is a disappointing 22%.
List at least 5 specific sources of error that may have contributed to the student’s disappointing yield.