1. What steps would you take to evaluate the company’s

1. What steps would you take to evaluate the company’s current diversity and inclusion strategy?
2. What interventions do you think might be useful in this case?
3. What plans would you make for evaluating your proposed interventions?

CMC is a global retailing organization headquartered in California that buys and sells women’s and men’s fashion in retail outlets throughout the world. The company CEO, Caitlin Stephens, is one of the few female CEOs in the industry and is renowned for taking a pro-diversity stance and particularly for encouraging women to move to managerial positions in the company. Given her pro-female stance, she regularly features in the business pages and features sections of newspapers across the world where CMC has retail outlets. Recently, the company has had a major reputational hit in that a group of female employees in Australia have accused the company of sex discrimination arguing that women with children have been discriminated against and are being paid less than men. Needless to say, the high profile case in an Australian court has also meant that Caitlin’s life has been investigated in depth by journalists seeking to find more ‘dirt’ on CMC and its seemingly exemplary, feminist CEO. Caitlin wonders how her company could possibly have got into the situation where they could have been involved in such discriminatory processes. The company values of diversity and inclusion are taken very seriously and all employees have to go through some form of diversity training as part of their induction to ensure that these values are engendered into everyday practices. She is aware that in different cultural locations diversity needs to be addressed in different ways. For example, in a recent expansion of the company into the Chinese market she has been keen to ensure that the values and commitment to diversity are promoted as being located within traditional Chinese notions of inclusion. She is aware that some policies do not easily translate. However, to be found guilty of discrimination in Australia presents her with a puzzle. Her Australian Director of Operations has suggested that the issue has arisen due to local management practices that will be dealt with, but given the significance of the incident for both the company and her own personal reputation, Caitlin decides to visit the Australian head office to meet with key staff and discover more about why the incident has occurred. At a meeting with the Australian Director, Matt Sparkes, Caitlin asks more about how such discriminatory practices can occur. Matt expands on his view that the crucial issue is local management. At all of the retail outlets, staff have the right to access work–life balance programmes that include flexible working. However, during the recent run up to Christmas which is the busiest time of the year, Matt has been aware that different managers may be implementing these policies somewhat differently. Caitlin is committed to a no-blame culture so is keen to discuss the issues and problems with the policies openly with the managers concerned. Hence, a random selection of local managers are collected together to meet with Caitlin for an open exchange of views about their experience of the policy…………….………..will ensure that the company delivers on effective diversity management internationally.

1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of works council

1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of works council and client council involvement at an early stage of a PE intervention from the top management perspective and the individual employee perspective? 

2. What kind of HR policies and practices can be applied to retain valuable employees during a process of a major organizational change? 

3. Why is it important that the two board members actively participate in a road show in which they personally explain the PE situation? 

4. What is the impact of a General Electric-inspired performance management system on nurses and medical specialists in a hospital? 

5. How does the new performance management affect organizational commitment, occupational commitment and team commitment of employees within the hospital? 

6. What is the impact of outsourcing disciplines on employees who are being outsourced and employees who may stay? 

7. What kind of competencies do HR professionals need for adding value to the organizational change process caused by a PE intervention? 

8. What kind of concrete HR practices can be applied to minimize the negative effects on a PE intervention on employee attitudes and perceptions? Explain why.

Aline Bos and Paul Boselie.

The aim of this case is to show how broad economic and societal developments can get translated into concrete organisational human resource practices. The lecturer may start discussing the case at a higher abstract level (new public management developments), going step by step to a more operational level and ending up with the role of the HR professional in the organisational change process caused by a private equity intervention. The questions help the student to reflect on the broader developments and their meaning for public organisations and concrete HR practices. 

Level 1: New public management (NPM) 

  • Private equity in hospitals can be seen as a manifestation of NPM. Are students able to mention other examples of NPM interventions in the public sector (e.g. public and semipublic organisations)? 
  • Why are these examples of NPM? What are their main characteristics? 

Level 2: Private equity The lecturer can give some more background information on the concept of private equity to illustrate the private equity intervention for students and its links with NPM developments. The following text can be used as a background. 

Level 3: The hospitals With the context of NPM and knowledge about private equity, the lecturer can now turn to the implications of private equity for hospitals as organisations delivering public services. Hospitals have to deal with multiple and multiple – sometimes contradictory – logics: efficiency and effectiveness, fairness and accessibility, robustness and resilience (e.g. Hood, 1991). The discussion focuses on the following question: What will be the impact of a private equity intervention in hospitals on the individual, organisational and societal level? What level or dimension needs priority? 

 Individual level: for example, organisational trust, professional ethic, professional space. 

  • Organisational level: for example, efficiency, organizational values, safety. 
  • Societal level: for example, healthcare quality, costs/taxes, accessibility 

Refer to the case of the Rembrandt van Rijn hospital, but also stimulate students to think in other directions and possibilities of what will happen when a private equity firm gets a share in hospitals. There is a potential tension between the different logics. To put it simply, there are possibilities for tension between economic value in terms of efficiency and public/societal values, for example, reflected in the quality and safety of healthcare in hospitals.

Level 4: HR roles After debating on foregoing levels, the students now have to put themselves into the role of an HR professional in a hospital which is in the middle of a private equity intervention. The central question is: What kind of qualities and competencies do HR professionals need for adding value to the organizational change process caused by a private equity intervention? As a lecturer, you can position the quality of an HR professional as someone who is very good at handling ambiguity (Legge, 1995; Guest and King, 2004). Legge (1995) makes a distinction between two HR roles for having significant influence on strategic decision making: conformist innovator and deviant innovator. The conformist innovator speaks the business language and aligns HRM primarily with shareholder value (economic value), while the deviant innovator challenges a unitarist perspective. The deviant innovator has a high tolerance for ambiguities taking into account multiple logics and the interests of multiple . Now, when students have to think as if they are an HR professional, ask them the following questions: 

  • Which tasks have priority while managing the organizational change caused by a private equity intervention? 
  • What competencies do you need to fulfill these tasks adequately? 

The lecturer can summarise the discussions on the different levels, showing how abstract changes may have concrete implications for organizations, often with contradictory and complex demands, and ask for specific competencies and practices of HR professionals in managing these specific changes. 

1. What interventions would you suggest the executive team take

1. What interventions would you suggest the executive team take in order to achieve their aim of moving towards a culture where diverse groups are treated fairly?
2. What impact do you think your suggested interventions will have upon:
a. Eastern European employees;
b. Northern and Western European employees;
c. Senior management team

Eurozone is a political lobbying organization based in Brussels. Founded 15 years ago by two ex-European Members of Parliament, its aim is to draw the attention of Members of the European Parliament and other influential bodies to the issues considered important by its clients. In the past, Eurozone lobbyists have sought to influence around issues such as immigration policies and the entry into the European Union of new countries; discussions around the common agricultural and fishing policies; and the allocation of various pots of European funding. Their lobbyists work for a wide range of clients including business and political groups. The success of the organization has seen an associated expansion of the number of employees. Founded by Hans Klein, a German national, and René Mertens, a Belgian national, the company now employs ten other people. Additionally, the firm uses freelancers who are employed for specific assignments. These jobs are seen as particularly accessible for women who might want to combine the work with having a family. The relationship between the firm and its freelancers is particularly important because it enables the firm some flexibility around workload. The owners pride themselves on the effective long-term relationships they have built with some freelancers and that they will prioritize working for them above other lobbying organizations. One of the key successful attributes of the company is that as the EU has expanded they have been successful in their ability to bring in a range of diverse clients from the different European nations. One of the factors that have attracted these clients has been the diverse composition of the company. Many of those involved in European politics recognize that the area is heterogeneous and that the key issues and interests of those in Western and Northern Europe may differ from those in the East and the South. Therefore, the company’s strategy has focused upon recruiting some new staff from Eastern Europe to deal with the increasing number of assignments that have arisen as a result of the expansion of the EU. The owners believe that there is a clear business case for this recruitment strategy in that they expect that Eastern European clients will be more at ease with these staff. Therefore, this will give them some advantage over their competitors in what is an increasingly crowded market. The executive team of the company consists of the two owners and Angela Goossens, another Belgian national who was René’s PA having previously worked with a number of other European Members of Parliament. Angela’s role is to manage the firm’s office whilst the two owners – together with the other regular staff – focus upon lobbying and business development. The executive team have a weekly Monday morning meeting where work in progress and new assignments are reviewed and allocated. The assignments that the company deal with can roughly be divided into two kinds: those that are more general or issue specific, and those that are associated with particular countries or regions. In allocating work, the executive team decide. Angela to investigate and advise about how to make their business more inclusive.

1. What do you consider the organization’s culture to be?

1. What do you consider the organization’s culture to be? Either use your own words to describe this or relate your understanding of the culture to one of the models we have covered in this chapter, e.g. Harrison, Deal and Kennedy. 

2. Does this culture apply equally across the whole of the organization or just to a certain part(s) of it? You will initially need to think through these ideas on your own. Make some brief notes to help organize your thoughts. Having done this, exchange your ideas with others in a group. 

The purpose of this activity is to help students to focus their understanding of the broad concept of organisational culture and relate it to an organisation of which they have some knowledge. The two key issues this activity attempts to focus on are conceptual models of culture and the concept of subcultures. Teachers could get students to describe the organization they have knowledge of and relate it to one of the numerous models or typologies of culture that have been produced in the literature. If students are not familiar with these models as yet, or seem unable to make the link between their knowledge of an organization and conceptual models, teaching staff could ‘translate’ the student’s ideas, for example, by identifying some typical characteristics of the organization, and relate these to specific models. Students could be encouraged to identify management practices and other cultural mechanisms, for example, symbols and stories that are being used by management in the organization. In relation to subcultures, students should be encouraged to identify what the different subcultures are. Again, they should be encouraged to identify why these subcultures exist in the same organization, and how this was perceived within the organization, for example, positively or was it considered a problem. Students should also be encouraged to try and identify why these subcultures occurred, for example, based on different professions or different functional areas of the organization.

1. Clarify what the term ‘emotional intelligence’ means, and outline

1. Clarify what the term ‘emotional intelligence’ means, and outline the kind of skills and abilities that Daljeet might improve as a result of developing his emotional intelligence. 

2. What might be the main benefits of providing Daljeet with an opportunity to develop his emotional intelligence – for him, for the call centre, and for the call handlers he is responsible for line managing? 

3. With reference to this particular example, what criticisms might be made of the concept of ‘emotional intelligence’, and of the deployment of emotional intelligence as a way of addressing the problems outlined in this case?

This case study encourages students to consider the organisational context, and development of, skills in the deployment of emotional intelligence. The first question asks students to engage with the concept of emotional intelligence, considering what the term means, and outlining the kinds of skills and abilities that might be improved as a result of developing emotional intelligence. To address this question, students ought to consider the details of the case itself, as well as the material considered in the section on ‘HRM: Management gets emotional’ in the main body of the chapter, discussed particularly in relation to Goleman’s (2009a,b) typology. The skills associated with the effective management of emotional intelligence are listed on page 495, and students should be encouraged to relate these skills to the issues considered in the case itself, particularly with reference to Daljeets’ emotional self-awareness, emotional control, social awareness, motivational abilities, and capacity to manage work relationships. Communication and negotiation are important and relevant themes here. Considering these issues would enable students to begin to address Question 2 of the case study, focusing on the benefits to Daljeet, to the call centre and to the call handlers he is responsible for line managing. Ideally, students should pick up on the connection between the skills outlined in their response to Question 1, and the potential to reduce voluntary turnover, and improve levels of motivation and job satisfaction. To address Question 3, students should be encouraged to consider the more critical, analytical material discussed from page 487 of the main body of the chapter onwards. Here, students might focus on the discussion of emotional labour and connect the development and deployment of emotional intelligence to commodification of emotion, and to the exploitation of emotion as an organizational resource. Students should ideally be encouraged to connect this to the discussion and evolution of management theory discussed in the chapter, noting how this represents a shift away from the suppression of managers’ emotions in scientific management and the Human Relations approach.

1. In what ways is gender relevant to the performance

1. In what ways is gender relevant to the performance and management of emotional labour at Girlie Glitter Co.?

2. How might the concepts of ‘surface acting’ and ‘deep acting’ (Hochschild, 1983) be applied to the experiences of sales assistants? 

3. What HRM techniques have the management team devised to encourage sales assistants to perform emotional labour? 

4. What coping strategies do staff implement to alleviate the negative consequences of the emotional labour aspects of their work? 

5. Draft a recruitment advertisement for sales assistants at Girlie Glitter Co. What key issues might you need to consider in recruiting, selecting and training new staff? 

The case study questions are designed to enhance students’ critical and reflexive understanding of emotion at work, and particularly of emotional labour and its management. The aim is to provide students with an opportunity to reflect on some of the key theories, concepts and practices and to apply these to a particular case study, and also to their own lives and work experiences. The short case study questions are designed to encourage students to think about why organisations might seek to manage emotion, and also the potential benefits and problems this might involve, about the types of work that require the performance of emotional labour, about the skills involved and also ‘emotional dissonance’ (Hochschild, 1983) that emotional labour might result in, and about the role of body language in the management of emotional labour, as well as the conflicts that might be experienced between the performance of emotional labour and other aspects of service roles, as well as some of the coping strategies that emotional labourers might develop. In Case study 20.1 on ‘Girlie Glitter’, students are encouraged to reflect on a number of themes introduced in the chapter, and to make connections between theoretical concepts and their application to management practice. These include: the relationship between gender and emotional labour, different types of emotional labour and the skills they involve, techniques used to manage and monitor emotional labour, emotional dissonance and coping strategies developed by emotional labourers. The final Discussion Question (requiring students to draft a recruitment advertisement) is designed to encourage critical reflection on the recruitment, selection and training issues raised by emotional labour, and to encourage further reading around these issues.

Your task is to provide an overview of the content

Your task is to provide an overview of the content and delivery format of the day’s training session. Some points to consider are: 

  • How will the day be divided up? 
  • What will be the content of each of the sessions? 
  • How will you surface different views of the policy in a culturally sensitive manner? 
  • What difficulties do you anticipate with the training you have suggested? 
  • How will you evaluate the impact and effectiveness of the training? 

You are the HR Director of a large multinational finance company. The company has a well-established diversity policy which covers all of the different regional locations of the company. Within the policy, it explicitly states that discrimination against certain groups of the workforce based on particular differences will not be tolerated. However, you are concerned that there are different expectations and values across the senior management team in the different locations of the company. Therefore, there is a lack of consistency in how difference and diversity are treated. You are concerned that there needs to be more clarity around the interpretation of the policy worldwide and decide that you will take the opportunity to use the regular annual three day meeting of the worldwide HR Directors to engage colleagues in a one day training session about the challenges of managing diversity globally and the expressed company values in this area. Your aim is to ensure that all Directors are committed to the policy, and can cascade its importance once they return to their own country.

1. Why might the working environment of these Santa performers

1. Why might the working environment of these Santa performers be described as an ‘emotional cauldron’? What does this mean for the performers, agency management and customers?
2. How might the Santa performers’ experience and management of emotions such as fear and anxiety be understood?
3. How do these emotions impact on the ways in which the men manage their performance and interactions with clients?
4. From an HR perspective, what measures might be introduced to make the working environment less stressful?

This case study encourages students to consider service work in what is an emotionally charged setting, along with the darker side of such work and the demands it places upon employees and management. Adopting the concept of the ‘emotional cauldron’ (Albrow, 1992), the first question provides students with an opportunity to reflect on the ways in which particular combinations of factors – such as the nature and expectations of customers, the desires and motivations of the employees, and the cultural expectations surrounding the job – can significantly intensify the expectations surrounding the emotional content of the work and its management. The study then directs students towards considering the darker and more damaging emotions that might be experienced by such employees, including anxiety and fear, as they undertake what ostensibly is a job associated with positive emotional experiences. As such, it asks them to consider the possible damaging consequences of altruistic forms of emotion work (Bolton, 2000), especially that which involves a commitment to the authenticity of the emotional performance, when faced with emotionally distressing, or potentially hostile, responses from customers and other members of the public. The final two questions draw attention to how both employees, and potentially HRM professionals, might act in order to minimize both the emotional and psychological risks associated with difficult or hostile emotional responses. In the former case, this might involve active modifications to how roles are undertaken, or the potential for collective support and reassurance amongst colleagues akin to Korczynski’s (2003) ‘communities of coping’. The latter might involve students reflecting on the potential for the active intervention of HR managers to ensure employees are protected from, or are trained to manage, such encounters