1. What key challenges are likely to be created by

1. What key challenges are likely to be created by the coexistence of these three scenarios?
2. What are the implications of these different scenarios for the HR function?
3. What types of HRM practices would you recommend for each scenario?

A team from PwC and the James Martin Institute for Science and Civilisation at the Said Business School in Oxford came itogether in 2007 to develop a series of scenarios for the future of people management. The result was three ‘worlds of work’, which provide a lens through which to examine how organisations might operate in the future. The forecasts are based on the results of a specially commissioned survey of 10,000 people in China, India, Germany, the UK and the USA and a survey of almost 500 HR professionals across the world.

1. Using Whittington’s model, identify the dominant strategic approach within

1. Using Whittington’s model, identify the dominant strategic approach within low fares airlines. 

2. What are the common external pressures facing both low fares airlines and legacy airlines? 

3. What are the short-term and long-term risks for companies adopting low road employment practices? 

4. What advice would you give to low fares airlines for avoiding the short-term and longterm risks you identify in the previous question?

Since 2010, there have been significant developments in the European civil aviation sector European civil aviation sector in the business strategies of both low fares’ and legacy airlines as they restructure to meet the twin pressures of competition and austerity. In most cases, these developments reflect and an accelerated ‘race-to-the-bottom’ and an increase in ‘social dumping’, specifically the downgrading of working conditions, training, health and safety and wages. In general, aviation firms cite unfair competition organised by another company to justify tougher working conditions and impose more flexibility, wage cuts or a weakening of the welfare of its workers, such as the use of unsafe working practices, which increase the risks of industrial accidents.
Two comprehensive studies of employment relations in the European civil aviation industry have recently been conducted with the financial support of the European Commission and on behalf of the European Transport Workers’ Federation (ETF). The more recent of these, published in 2014 and based on a survey of more than 2,700 European aviation workers as well as case studies of both low fares’ airlines (LFAs) and legacy airlines, demonstrates that many airlines now resort to more precarious forms of employment through the use of agency, temporary, and what is widely recognised as ‘bogus’ or ‘false’ self-employed workers. They also demand new forms of flexibility that benefit the company rather than the worker and rarely involve employees in any meaningful way in decision that (adversely) affect their daily working lives and future careers.

Read through the scenarios below, which all concern discrimination on

Read through the scenarios below, which all concern discrimination on the basis of religion.
Scenario 1 – The airline check-in desk worker
An airline has a strict uniform policy that prohibits the display of any jewellery. Ms E is a devout Christian and started to wear  a small plain silver cross on a necklace that could be seen above her uniform. She worked on the check-in desks and managers asked her to remove it, because it was in breach of the uniform policy. She refused because she felt that she had the right to express her faith while at work. The company offered her the opportunity to move to another non-customer-facing role where the uniform policy did not apply, but she was not prepared to accept this. She was sent home on unpaid leave. 

Scenario 2 – The nurse 

A hospital introduced a uniform policy that prevented nurses from wearing necklaces because of health and safety concerns. Mrs C was an experienced nurse who had been wearing a cross necklace on wards for 30 years without incident. She refused to remove the cross but offered to have a magnetic clasp fitted (so the necklace would come apart easily if it was grabbed by a patient). The hospital insisted that she removed the necklace, but she refused to do so and was moved to a desk job. 

Scenario 3 – The relationship guidance counsellor
Mr M was a counsellor employed by a charity providing relationship guidance. He made it clear during a training  session that he would have difficulty counselling same-sex  couples because this conflicted with his strongly held Christian principles. He argued that managers should  make allowances to take into account his beliefs. He was suspended pending an investigation and then dismissed.

Scenario 4 – The registrar  

Ms L was a registrar employed to conduct civil marriage services. She took up employment many years prior to the introduction of same-sex civil partnerships, but as soon as these became legal she made it clear to her employers that she was not prepared to conduct them as a matter of conscience,  because it was against her Christian beliefs. At first she was able to swap duties with other registrars, but then a change in working conditions introduced by her employer for all staff meant that swapping was no longer possible. She argued that she was being forced to choose between her
religious beliefs and her job. She claimed she was shunned and accused of being homophobic by managers and work colleagues. She was eventually dismissed.

1. Compare scenario 1 and scenario 2.
(a) Evaluate the key issues in each and decide whether the employees have suffered discrimination.

(b) What issues must managers bear in mind when deciding how to proceed?

2. Compare scenario 3 and scenario 4.
(a) Who is being discriminated against, and why?

(b) Who has the stronger case, Mr M or Ms L? Explain your reasoning.

3. Based on all four scenarios, did you think employees should be allowed to exercise their conscience in this way in the workplace? Explain your reasoning.

If you were the judge called on to make a

If you were the judge called on to make a decision on this case, what would your decision be, and why?

Discrimination lawsuits are rarely simple, because the employer will often argue that the person was fired due to, poor performance. Rather than discrimination. So, there’s often a ‘mixed mots, element to such situations. The facts of a case illustrate this (Burk. Cahformes Assam:mon of Medias, California Court of Appeals. Number 161513. Unpublished. 12/12/03). Tie facts were as follows. The California Association of Real-tors maintained a hotline service to, provide legal advice to real estate agents. One of the 12 lawyers who answered through hotline on behalf of the Association was a 61-year-old California attor-ney who Misled at the Association front 1989 to 2000. Until 1996 he received mostly good reviews and salary increases. At that time. An Association member began filing complaints about his advice. His supervisor told him to he more courteous and more thorough in providing advice. Two scans later, Association members were still complaining about this individual. Among other things. Association member who called in to deal with him filed complaints referring to him as space cadet.’ ‘Incompetent: and total jerk.” Sul sequently. his supervisor contacted six Association members whom the 61-year-old lawyer had recently counseled; five of Ow six said they had had had experiences. The Association fired him for mistreating Association MC111- hers and providing inadequate legal Afhlre.

The 61-year Old lawyer sued the Association, claiming that the firing was age related. To support his claim, he noted, among other things, that one colleague had told him that he was ‘probably getting close to retirement and that another colleague had told him that both he and another lawyer were ‘getting older: The appeals court had to decide whether the Association fired the 61•yearold lawyer because of his age or because of his performance. Purpose: The purpose of this exercise is to proside practice in analyzing and applying knowledge of equal opportunity legislation to a real problem. Required Understanding: Be thoroughly familiar with the material presented in this chapter. In addition, read the preceding “space cadet case on which this experiential exercise is based.

Instructions for interviewers: while the interviewees are out of the

Instructions for interviewers: while the interviewees are out of the room, the panel interviewers will have 20 min. to develop a short structured situational interview form for a “nanny.” The panel interview team will interview two candidates for the position. During the panel interview, each interviewer should be taking notes on a copy of the structured situational interview form. After the panel interview, the panel interviewers should discuss their notes. What were your first impressions of each interviewee? Were your impressions similar? What candidate would you all select for the position and why?

Appendices A and B at the end of this book

Appendices A and B at the end of this book list the knowledge someone studying for the HRCI (Appendix A) certification exam needs to know in each area of human resource management (such as in Strategic Management andWorkforce Planning). In groups of several students, do four things:

(1) review Appendix A and/or B;

(2) identify the material in this chapter that relates to the Appendix A and/or B required knowledge lists;

(3) write four multiple-choice exam questions on this material that you believe would be suitable for inclusion in the HRCI exam and/or the SHRM exam; and (4) if time permits, have someone from your team post your team’s questions in front of the class, so that students in all teams can answer the exam questions created by the other team.

Instructions for the interviews: The interviewees should leave the room

Instructions for the interviews: The interviewees should leave the room for about 20 min. While out of the room, the interviewees should develop an “interviewer assessment form” based on the information presented in the chapter regarding factors that can undermine the usefulness of an interview. During the panel interview, the interviewees should assess the interviewers using the interviewer assessment form. After the panel interviewers have conducted the interview, the interviewees should leave the room to discuss their notes. Did the interviewers exhibit any of the factors that can undermine the usefulness of an interview? If so, which ones? What suggestions would you (the interviewees) make to the interviewers on how to improve the usefulness of the interview?

1. Provide a one-page summary of what individual hotel managers

1. Provide a one-page summary of what individual hotel managers should know in order to make it more likely incoming employees from abroad will adapt to their new surroundings.

2. In previous chapters you recommended various human resource practices Hotel Paris should use. Choose one of these, and explain why you believe they could take this program abroad, and how you suggest they do so.

3. Choose one Hotel Paris human resources practice that you believe is essential to the company specifically for achieving its high-quality-service goal, and explain how you would implement that practice in the firm’s various hotels worldwide.

Improving Performance at The Hotel Paris

Managing Global Human Resources

The Hotel Paris’s competitive strategy is, “To use superior guest service to differentiate the Hotel Paris properties, and to thereby increase the length of stay and return rate of guests, and thus boost revenues and profitability.” HR manager Lisa Cruz must now formulate functional policies and activities that support this competitive strategy and boost performance by eliciting the required employee behaviors and competencies.

With hotels in 11 cities in Europe and the United States, Lisa knew that the company had to do a better job of managing its global human resources, Lisa knew. For example, there were no formal means of identifying or training management employees for duties abroad (for those going either to the United States or to Europe). As another example, recently, after spending upward of $200,000 on sending a U.S. manager and her family abroad, they had to return her abruptly when the family complained of missing their friends back home. Lisa knew this was no way to run a multinational business. She turned her attention to developing the HR practices her company required to do business more effectively internationally.

On reviewing the data, it was apparent to Lisa and the CFO that the company’s global human resource practices were probably inhibiting the Hotel Paris from being the world-class guest services company that it sought to be. For example, high-performing service and hotel firms had formal departure training programs for at least 90% of the employees they sent abroad; the Hotel Paris had no such programs. Similarly, with each city’s hotel operating its own local hotel HR information system, there was no easy way for Lisa, the CFO, or the company’s CEO to obtain reports on metrics like turnover, absences, or workers’ compensation costs across all the different hotels. As the CFO summed it up, “If we can’t measure how each hotel is doing in terms of human resource metrics like these, there’s really no way to manage these activities, so there’s no telling how much lost profits and wasted efforts are dragging down each hotel’s performance.” Lisa received approval to institute new global human resources programs and practices.

In instituting these new programs and practices, Lisa had several goals in mind. She wanted an integrated human resource information system (HRIS) that allowed her and the company’s top managers to monitor and assess, on an ongoing basis, the company’s global performance on strategically required employee competencies and behaviors such as attendance, morale, commitment, and service-oriented behavior. To address this need, she received approval to contract with a company that integrated, via the Internet, the separate hotels’ HR systems, including human resource and benefits administration, applicant tracking and résumé scanning, and employee morale surveys and performance appraisals.

She also contracted with an international HR training company to offer expatriate training for Hotel Paris employees and their families before they left for their foreign assignments, and to provide short-term support after they arrived. That training company also helped create a series of weeklong “Managers’ Seminars.” Held once every 6 months at a different hotel in a different city, these gave selected managers from throughout the Hotel Paris system an opportunity to meet and to learn more about the numerous new HR programs and practices that Lisa and her team had been instituting for the purpose of supporting the company’s strategic aims. With the help of their compensation specialist, Lisa and her team also instituted a new incentive program for each of the company’s local managers, to focus their attention more fully on the company’s service-oriented strategic aims. By the end of the year, the Hotel Paris’s performance on metrics such as percent of expatriates receiving pre-departure screening, training, and counseling were at or above those of high-performing similar companies. She and the CFO believed, rightly, that they had begun to get their global HR system under control.