after studying the assigned reading 21st Century Communication: A Reference Handbook: Chapter 65: The Changing Nature of “News” considering the concepts of timeliness, proximity, unusualness, prominence, impact, conflict and human interest, provide a current example of a compelling news story. Answer the following questions or prompts:

 INSTRUCTIONS
after studying the assigned reading 21st Century Communication: A Reference Handbook: Chapter 65: The Changing Nature of “News” considering the concepts of timeliness, proximity, unusualness, prominence, impact, conflict and human interest, provide a current example of a compelling news story. Answer the following questions or prompts:
A) Why is it compelling? Which of the concepts does it exemplify?
B) In general, how have these concepts been challenged by the advent of immediacy in news release?
Support the responses with research from the Learning Resources. Use APA in-text citations where necessary and cite any outside sources. Create an APA Reference List at the end of the document.
Submit the responses in the file submission area for this assignment. For example, if you choose to “add a file” by attaching an MS Word or PDF document, please also copy and paste your response into the comments area.

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Marketing Plan for Mental Healthcare Services

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SAMPLE ESSAY

Marketing Plan for Mental Healthcare Services

Mental Health Services

Component 1:

Mental health services are one of the highly demanded care services in the United States. According to the World Health Organization, 47.6 million people were diagnosed with psychological health-related problems in the US in 2018. This translates to 19.1% of adults in the country (Sundararaman, 2019). The condition’s prevalence is higher among adults than in children. Moreover, mental health conditions are also higher in some communities, such as African Americans than others. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, mental health cases are higher among African Americans and Spanish Americans than in their white counterparts.

There exist various forms of mental health condition, which include personality disorders, trauma-related disorders, mood disorders, and psychotic disorders. This marketing plan would focus on personality disorders, which is a major form of mental healthcare problems that is more prevalent in young people. According to CDC, prevalence of personality disorder in the United States was 9.1% in 2017 and is not associated with any gender.

The high prevalence of the condition in the country results from the fact that unlike other conditions, personality disorder might result from multiple sources, which include social and economic conditions, chronic diseases such as cancer, Aids, and heart diseases, and other life’s perturbations. This makes the condition the best to develop a marketing plan due to the high demand for its services. Moreover, the campaign would target youths, who are among the most significant social groups with high personality disorder levels.

The proposed marketing strategy would employ social media tools, which are necessary for reaching the targeted audience at a low price. One of the marketing tools selected for the approach is Facebook. Founded 16 years ago by Mark Zuckerberg as a socializing platform among college students in the United States, Facebook has become one of the leading marketing tools across the world. According to Statistica, Facebook has more than 2.5 billion monthly subscribers across the world, with 220.5 million being in the United States as of 2018 (Zarrella, 2019). Moreover, many of the subscribers are youths. This makes the platform an excellent marketing tool for a healthcare program due to the high number of subscribers. Another social media tool that would be employed for the proposed marketing strategy is Instagram. Notably, this is another popular social media platform across the globe, which was released in 2010 by Facebook, Inc.

The platform allows photo sharing, a factor that made the program an overnight hit, managing to register one million subscribers with the first one month of its operation. According to statistics, Instagram is used by 120.7 million Americans, with 37% of the American adults being subscribed to the program as of December 2019 (Zarrella, 2019).  Instagram has also introduced the Insta-stories feature, a program that is used by 500 million users daily. The higher number of subscribers and unique features that favor marketing makes Instagram an essential platform for personality disorder health campaign among youths in the United States.

One of the significant factors that make Facebook the most appropriate tool for the intended marketing plan for the personality disorder campaign among the youths is the fact that the platforms have a comprehensive marketing service that enables advertisers to reach many people at a lower price. For instance, the platform allows organizations to create business pages, which they can use to access their audience and market their products. Facebook also has classic ads and promoted posts options, which can be used by advertisers can reach millions of people. The program also enables marketers to select the location and the age group of their targeted audience, making it suitable for a targeted marketing strategy. Moreover, the program is subscribed to many young people in the United States, making it one of the best social media tools for the proposed campaign. (Zarrella, 2019) The same case applies to Instagram, which has an affordable marketing program than enables marketers to target their preferred audience using pictures to convey their messages. Notably, Instagram allows organizations to increase brand loyalty, increase brand awareness, to share company’s culture and value, and to build a community by offering them affordable classic ads and promoted posts programs.

Health Agency

Component 2:

The North Star Behavioral Health System is a healthcare facility based in Alaska, the United States of America. The facility specializes in treating children and teenagers suffering from psychiatric or substance abuse issues. North Start Behavioral Health System is the best to target with the proposed marketing plan, as it targets the youths suffering from mental related problems. Recently, the hospital opened a Chris Kyle branch, commonly referred to as the Chris Kyle Patriots Hospital, which targets military officials and veterans suffering from related mental disorders. The hospital’s ability to specialize in related mental disorders for decades popularized its status among Americans. Moreover, the fact that the hospital is geared towards youths suffering from childhood trauma means that it recognizes the spectrum of behavioral challenges that are accelerated by abuse, witnessing trauma, and neglect (North Star Behavioral Health System, 2019). The facility also partnered with various organizations across the United States to enhance mental health care among youths. For instance, they are partnered with the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention (Action Alliance) to research and provide innovative techniques to prevent suicides in the country.

The North Star Behavioral Health System’s mission is “to continuously strive to achieve a level of care that patients recommend to their family and friends; physicians prefer for their patients and employees are proud to provide.” The mission is anchored on the facility’s commitment to the principles of continuous improvement in measurable ways, service excellence, ethical and fair treatment of all, employee development, and innovation in service delivery (North Star Behavioral Health System, 2019). The hospital’s mission will inform the marketing plan proposed, as it aims to enhance the patient’s satisfaction.

Moreover, the facility’s vision is “to use science and evidence-based practices to become the industry-standard and thought leader supporting those suffering from related mental disorders (North Star Behavioral Health System, 2019).” The facility is focused on improving the mental health of Americans in the long run. The fact that the hospital envisions itself as the industry’s standard in the use of science and technology to enhancing mental health means that the hospital is committed to assisting Americans who have psychiatric conditions and various addictions. As far as the mission and vision statements are concerned, youths are at the heart of the North Star Behavioral Health System. This results from the fact that youths form most people who have personality disorders. Specializing in mental healthcare indicates that the hospital is willing to assist millions of Americans. According to (Healthy People, 2020), in 2004 1 out of 4 adults were suffering from a mental health disorder. The most common being anxiety or depression, and 1 of 17 mental illness was classified as serious.  In addition, mental health disorders also affect our children and adolescents in the U.S.  In 2010, according to (Healthy People, 2020), 1 in 5 children had a mental disorder, the most common attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). People, including children and adolescents, with no treatment of mental health disorders are at high risk for alcohol or drug abuse, self-abuse or suicide. It is the 11th leading cause of death in the U.S. for all ages, and 2nd for ages 25-34 (Healthy People, 2020).

The proposed marketing plan aims to employ a series of social media tools, which are necessary for reaching the targeted audience at a low price. The targeted audience, in this case, is youths suffering from a personality disorder, which is a common mental healthcare issue among individuals aged between 13 and 35 years. The two primary social media tools selected for the marketing programs are Facebook and Instagram, both of which are owned by Facebook Corporation (Zarrella, 2019). The two platforms have been providing businesses with affordable and far-reaching marketing packages, thus making them the most suitable tools to implement the proposed marketing strategy for the North Star Behavioral Health System.

One of the various ways that the proposed marketing plan supports the hospital’s vision and mission is by using science to become the industry’s standard. Notably, the invention of social media, including Facebook and Instagram is one of the significant scientific developments of the 21st century. Millions of Americans, especially our youth population, are subscribed to these platforms, making them some of the most famous inventions in the world. The health agency as part of their targeted populated group will develop and implement how to get to the agency website and provide that information to our youth by mail, invitation to webinar or other possibility format  with in the social media website for the health agency including keywords in google that will assist in getting our youth the information to the website that will give the strongest presence in the youth community and get the return or investment that produces the results needed to help our youth get the mental health services they need to live a better life.  Therefore, the fact that the proposed marketing plan aims to employ social media as the primary means of reaching the targeted social group is in line with the facility’s vision of using science and technology to become a leader among facilities offering mental healthcare in the United States. Although some people believe that a hospital can only use technology to finding solutions to healthcare problems, it can use the same to market its services.

 Another significant way that the proposed marketing plan supports the hospital’s vision and mission is striving to achieve a level of care that patients recommend to their family and friends. Notably, one of the significant factors considered by friends and family members before recommending a facility to a loved one is the cost of services. In most cases, people prefer facilities that offer high-quality services at an affordable price. However, a mental healthcare facility cannot guarantee affordable services, especially if its cost of operation is relatively high. This is especially the case with the North Star Behavioral Center, which is a for-profit healthcare facility. The fact that the cost of a facility’s marketing plan determines whether its services would be affordable or not means that an expensive marketing plan enhances the cost of operation and vice versa (Sundararaman, 2019). In this case, the proposed marketing plan aims to use social media platforms which are relatively affordable. Some good examples to attract our youth populated groups that are considered high risk for mental illnesses are the following: invitations to webinars for introduction to mental health options, sending messaging using messaging application within the social media platform, gaming invitations that attract our youth ,  and/or video excerpts that provide educational tools for them, The end result is reducing the cost of services in the facility, a factor that promotes recommendations in the long run.

Population

Component 3:

A healthcare marketing plan outlines the marketing strategy for proposed services to reach the targeted population. In this case, The North Star Behavioral Center’s marketing plan aims to inform many youths who are suffering from mood disorders in the United States about free mental health programs offered at the facility. However, to engage these patients effectively, the hospital’s marketing team must consider how the patients regard mental health. In most cases, youths suffering from mood disorders tend to be apprehensive towards mental health programs, as most of them are still in denial (Pedrelli, Nyer, Yeung, Zulauf & Wilens. 2015).  Thus, North Star Behavioral Center must analyze the situation to plan for the next course of action.

The population that will be most served by the proposed health marketing plan is youths suffering from mood disorders. One of the primary reasons why the proposed marketing plan targets the community is as a result of the fact that the cohort tends to be vulnerable as far as access to mental healthcare is concerned. The fact that the group lacks financial resources due to their age means that they cannot access health insurance services or subscribe to other healthcare services targeting the needy such as Medicare and Medicaid (Parker, 2008). It puts youth at the risk of lacking the essential mental healthcare services, as they cannot access the healthcare system. Another reason why youths suffering from mood disorders make the primary population that would best be served by the proposed North Star Behavioral Center’s marketing plan is due to their lack of access to economic opportunities due to high stigmatization levels in the country. Notably, most youths suffering from mood disorders cannot afford quality healthcare services for their families due to a lack of financial resources. Most of our youth are ranked among low-income earners, as they lack the necessary mental capacity to get well-paying jobs (Hillestad, 2020). Most of them survive as homeless people and drug abusers, thus struggling to provide for their families, including medical services. However, offering the youth free mental health services would enhance their social status by eliminating stigmatization, and at the same time, improve their aggregate health status.

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Moreover, healthcare marketers may face a series of barriers when promoting its healthcare marketing plan. One of these barriers is poor reception by the community members. The fact that most members are youths suffering from mood disorders means that they have developed trust issues with other members of the society and facilities, including hospitals. The fact that members are apprehensive towards the proposed free healthcare programs means that they are likely to rebel against the plan. Another significant barrier that the healthcare marketer would face is the inability to access the targeted community (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2014). For example, most individuals suffering from mood disorders and other mental related problems spend most of their time alone and do not like interacting with other members of society. Also, it makes it hard to access them or convince them to participate in the program.

          However, there exist various strategies that need to address the identified barriers. One of these strategies is creating a rapport with the targeted community by planning for a program that might interest them. Also, it includes planning for an entertainment event at the hospital that aims to celebrate youths and their mental health. Another strategy that the marketer can employ to address the barriers is using both mainstream and social media to advertise the proposed program (Wurzbach, 2012). Notably, youths suffering from mood disorders are likely to be accessing various forms of media.

Health Literacy

Component 4:

The marketing plan targets youths suffering from mood disorders, especially those that live in the U.S.A.  The North Star Behavioral Center has its main facility in Anchorage, Alaska; thus, the reason why the targeted audience is American youths. The program aims to employ various channels to reach the targeted audience, which includes social media platforms such as Facebook and Instagram and hosting major events at the facility to attract the group. However, for the proposed marketing program to succeed, there is a need to consider the literacy levels among the American youth population (Grant, 2015). Notably, the ability of the targeted population to decipher the health message, determine the service offered, and identify how to best access the facility plays a significant role in dictating communication.

According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the literacy rate among youths aged between 15 and 24 in the United States is 95% (Stein, 2017). The US is one of the countries with the highest number of educated youths across the globe, courtesy of education policy. However, despite the high literacy levels, most American children do not have enough knowledge regarding mental conditions such as mood disorders. It also results from the high stigma associated with psychiatric conditions among the youths, thus, discouraging many of them from pursuing knowledge regarding the topic. Moreover, the fact that most people engaging in drug abuse, which is a significant cause of mental disorders in the United States are youth means that the cohort has low health literacy levels.

Moreover, the proposed marketing plan would address the health literacy of the target audience in various ways. One of these manners is by expanding youths’ knowledge levels on mental health, especially on mood disorders. The plan would also show our adolescents the need for maintaining good mental health and avoiding stigmatizing those diagnosed with mood disorders.

The proposed marketing plan would undertake a series of strategies to tailor the messages in a way that promotes uptake within the targeted audience. One of these strategies is to include educative information on mood disorders in programs that interests them. As indicated earlier, the marketing plan would employ social media as the primary mean of conveying the proposed program to the youths. It will result from the fact that many American children spend a significant amount of their time on social networks (Stein, 2017). Thus, to enhance youths’ health literacy, simple vital metal healthcare information would include both videos and images uploaded online for the marketing campaign. It will convey essential information on mood disorder to youths, and at the same time, assist in reducing stigmatization levels. Another strategy that would employ to address the health literacy level among young people is conducting seminars for youths on mental health (Grant, 2015). Also, it would allow the cohort to interact directly with health experts and, at the same time, ask questions relating to mood disorders, thus enhance their literacy level.

The literacy level among American youths would play a significant role in enhancing the success rate of the proposed marketing plan. The plan intends to increase youths’ literacy levels in mental healthcare. However, to promote uptake among adolescents, the program would include educative information in marketing ads and host informative seminars.

Cultural Sensitivity

Component 5:

           There exist various elements of the proposed marketing plan that are culturally sensitive. The North Star Behavioral Center must be extra careful to ensure that the strategy achieves its primary goal without affecting the targeted population negatively. One of the culturally sensitive elements of the proposed marketing plan is the primary target. Initially, the programs target youths suffering from moods disorder across the United States. Some of the prevalent mood disorders among the targeted population include bipolar, major depressive disorders, dysthymic disorders, and manic episodes. One of the significant factors that make the targeted population culturally sensitive is the fact that the disorders’ prevalence in the group not equally distributed between various social groups within the cohort (Schlegelmilch, 2016). For instance, mood disorders are more prevalent among females than their male counterparts. Thus, the need to consider how the program would affect each gender before launching. Also, the disorder is not evenly distributed among ethnic groups living in the United States, thus making the program culturally sensitive. For instance, mood disorders are more prevalent among African American youths than their white and Hispanic counterparts due to various unique social and economic problems (Beamish, 2017). Thus, it emphasizes the need for the North Star Behavioral Center to develop strategies that would consider the project’s sensitivity to culture.           Another element of the proposed marketing plan that is culturally sensitive is the fact that the program targets youths. Notably, although mood disorders are high prevalence among adolescents, they are also present among other social groups. Thus, a marketing plan for healthcare services that targets only a single element of the society, youths, would be considered as bias by other social groups such as children and the elderly, thus cultural sensitivity.

           Culturally sensitive and appropriate considerations might affect marketing plans in various ways. One of these ways is eliciting adverse public reactions towards the organization. The society expects organizations to avoid culturally sensitive marketing plans. Thus, it results from the fact that culturally sensitive marketing campaigns tend to separate the community along social lines, hence the need for an organization to be considerate. Therefore, members of the society tend to develop negative views towards an organization that sponsors culturally sensitive marketing plans, which can escalate in the long run, leading the public to avoid goods and services offered by the organization in question. For example, running a culturally sensitive marketing plan might lead Americans to avoid healthcare services provided by the North Star Behavioral Center (Schlegelmilch, 2016). Thus, it is mainly social groups that might feel that the center’s marketing plan and programs are systematically avoiding them.

           Moreover, culturally sensitive, and appropriate considerations might also affect marketing plans by making them appeal only to a single social group. In the long run, this might encourage the targeted group to identify with the products in question as they feel that the product customized to them. However, this happens at the expense of losing other social groups that have the potential of seeking the services in question. A culturally sensitive marketing plan might increase the organization’s popularity, especially among the targeted social groups (Schroeder, 2017). For example, in the case of the North Star Behavioral Center, the organization might find favor among the youths.

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Formative Evaluation Process

Component 6:

The North Start Behavioral Health System intends to use a series of formative evaluation processes for the health program proposed. It is to ensure that the hospital’s marketing program that aims at reaching youths suffering from mood disorders are effective. Formative evaluations have proved useful in analyzing the effectiveness of the proposed plan, and whether a completed program was effective in achieving its objectives. Thus, they provide information on achieving program goals or improving the proposed program. In the case of the North Start Behavioral Health System, the facility intends to use two major formative evaluation processes (Valente, 2012). They include the evaluability assessment and need assessment. The proposed marketing program aims to employ social media tools and other marketing methods to reach the targeted population.

The evaluability assessment is a form of formative evaluation, which is commonly used in healthcare to determine accessibility for a proposed program. In most cases, the technique employed during the developmental stage of a healthcare program. In this case, the method used to determine whether the proposed marketing plan is measurable. Thus, for it to be effective, evaluation assessment would analyze the targeted population, the marketing methods proposed, and whether the hospital can serve the youth population targeted (Goodstadt, 2017). The technique would also show the extent to which evaluation of the proposed program is possible, based on the set objectives and goals. In this case, the set goals are to attract youths suffering from mood-related conditions.

A needs assessment is another form of formative evaluation used to measure the proposed program. The technique developed would also be used at the initial stage of the application.  Some of the factors that would be assessed by the program are the importance of the proposed marketing plan in achieving its objectives, and the prevalence of mood-related disorders in American society. Initially, need assessment measures the importance of implementing the proposed healthcare program in the community and whether it would be worthy for the organization to spend its resources in addressing the problem. Moreover, the technique would be useful in allowing various modifications to be made to the proposed marketing plan before the implementation process begins. For instance, by determining the depth of the problem in the society, the hospital would be able to determine whether the proposed marketing tools and budget would be enough to reach the targeted population, or whether additional methods and resources would be necessary (Valente, 2012). It would also be useful in determining whether the proposed program would be a waste of time and resources, thus triggering the management to review the program backward.

The inclusion of the two formative evaluation methods in designing the proposed marketing plan would further maximize the likelihood of the program to succeed. It is primarily by enabling the North Start Behavioral Health System to determine all the necessary factors for promoting the program’s success before outlining the resources. The inclusion of the two would also enable professionals involved in both the marketing plan and treating the targeted problem in the facility to know what the need is and what to do to succeed (Goodstadt, 2017). It results from the fact that the two tools would enable the facility to rearrange the program’s blueprint to a more engaging and understandable format.

Implementing the Marketing Plan & Outcome Evaluation

Component 7:

          The proposed marketing plan for the North Star Behavioral Health System, targeting youths suffering from mood disorders, would be implemented in different phases in six months. It results from the fact that the plan includes different strategies that require planning before implementing it. Foremost, the social media strategy would be applied first, which involves marketing the program in two major social media platforms. The two primary social media tools selected for the marketing programs are Facebook and Instagram. Here, the implementation process would take one month. Notably, the plan would utilize the hospital’s Facebook and Instagram pages, which have thousands of followers, with most of them being from Anchorage, Alaska. Various posts advertising the proposed program would be placed on these pages to inform subscribers.

          The facility would sponsor Facebook and Instagram adverts to run for a month. Notably, the two social media allows advertisers to sponsor marketing programs, with the aggregate cost depending on the number of the targeted audience. In this case, the advertising plan targeting most people both on Instagram and Facebook to ensure that they are reaching as many people as possible (Scheirer, 2016). The two companies also allow advertisers to select their targeted audience based on various social factors such as location, age, and education. In this case, the selected are youths aged between 13 and 24 living in the United States.

          The direct marketing campaign would run for six months consecutively. Implementing the plan would include designing leaflets that advertise the program to the targeted groups. Three people would be employed temporarily to prepare and distribute flyers in different towns across Alaska. To facilitate the printing process, the North Star Behavioral Health System would buy two modern printers (Byers, 2019). As indicated earlier, the entire marketing plan would run for six months to ensure that that program reaches as many youths as possible.

          However, there exists a series of potential barriers that might affect the implementation process. One of these barriers is the lack of enough finances to facilitate the program. The fact that the program is community-centered means that the hospital does not intend to make a profit from it but to assist youths suffering from mood-related disorders in the United States. Thus, financing the program is a tall order, as the North Star Behavioral Health System might not have enough resources to sponsor the program.

          Moreover, the fact that the program runs for six months means that it requires continuous financial support to keep it running. Thus, securing enough financial resources for the program might be a big challenge. Another potential barrier that might affect the implementation process is the lack of expertise to run the marketing campaign (Scheirer, 2016). Notably, social media marketing and other digital marketing techniques require in-depth knowledge of digital marketing. It results from the fact that running a successful online marketing program requires knowledge to convert viewers to clients and analytical skills to analyze their success rates.

          One of the primary ways of addressing the financial barrier is requesting support from various stakeholders. It involves pitching the plan to multiple organizations across the United States that might be willing to sponsor the program. In the case of a lack of expertise to run the program, the challenges can be addressed by employing experts only.

References

Beamish, K. (2017). Marketing Planning 2007-2008. Chicago: Routledge.

Byers, M. (2019). Digital Marketing That Actually Works the Ultimate Guide: Discover Everything You Need to Build and Implement a Digital Marketing Strategy That Gets Results. Chicago: Boot Camp Digital.

Goodstadt, M. (2017). Evaluation in Health Promotion: Principles and Perspectives. Chicago: WHO Regional Office Europe.

Grant, J. E. (2015). Young Adult Mental Health. Chicago: Oxford University Press.

Healthy People. (2020).  Mental Health.  Office of Disease Prevention and Health

          Promotion.  Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/leading-health-indicators/2020-lhi-topics/Mental-Health

Hillestad, S. G. (2020). Health Care Market Strategy: From Planning to Action. New York: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

North Star Behavioral Health System. (2019, March 23). About North Star Behavioral Health. Retrieved from North Star Behavioral Health System: https://northstarbehavioral.com/

              about-us/

O’Donohue, W. T. (2014). Handbook of Adolescent Health Psychology. Chicago: Springer Science & Business Media.

Pedrelli, P., Nyer, M., Yeung, A., Zulauf, C., & Wilens, T. (2015). College Students: Mental

          Health Problems and Treatment Considerations. Academic psychiatry: the journal of the    

          American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training and the Association

          for Academic Psychiatry, 39(5), 503–511. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40596-014-0205-9

Byers, M. (2019). Digital Marketing That Actually Works the Ultimate Guide: Discover Everything You Need to Build and Implement a Digital Marketing Strategy That Gets Results. Chicago: Boot Camp Digital.

Scheirer, M. A. (2016). Program implementation: the organizational context. Boston: age Publications.

Schlegelmilch, B. B. (2016). Global Marketing Strategy: An Executive Digest. Boston: Springer.

Schroeder, J. (2017). Brand Culture. New York: Routledge.

Stein, D. J. (2017). The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Mood Disorders. New York: American Psychiatric Pub.

Sundararaman, R. (2019). U. S. Mental Health Delivery System Infrastructure: A Primer. Chicago: DIANE Publishing.

US Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). The Effective Health Care Program Stakeholder Guide. US Department of Health and Human Services, 1-12.

Valente, T. W. (2012). Evaluating Health Promotion Programs. London: Oxford University Press.

Wurzbach, M. E. (2012). Community Health Education and Promotion: A Guide to Program Design and Evaluation. Chicago: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Zarrella, D. (2019). The Social Media Marketing Book. London: “O’Reilly Media, Inc.

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Consumer-technology interface is one of key concepts driving marketing strategies in modern organizations. The interface between technological devices and customer experience has gained prominence with the explosion of digital technology over the past two decades (Iqbal et al., 2018). Marketing strategies endeavor to generate marketing approaches that respond directly to personal expectations of target customers. It is important to understand the how technology shapes consumer behavior and apply these concepts in marketing.

SAMPLE ESSAY

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Customer-Technology Interface

Consumer-technology interface is one of key concepts driving marketing strategies in modern organizations. The interface between technological devices and customer experience has gained prominence with the explosion of digital technology over the past two decades (Iqbal et al., 2018). Marketing strategies endeavor to generate marketing approaches that respond directly to personal expectations of target customers. It is important to understand the how technology shapes consumer behavior and apply these concepts in marketing.   

The current research on customer-technology focuses on understanding consumer expectations from technology in addressing shopping experiences. The changing consumer behavior as a direct consequence of changing technologies a major theme in this field (Wind, 2020). The idea for researchers is to understand ways retailers and producers can optimize in-store and online shopping experience. The information would help marketers to tailor customer interface for particular product and service ranges as well as specific customer segments. Current research has also focused on tracking how consumers are adopting interface technologies while forecasting the likely penetration.

The dynamics of customer experience is emerging as one of the themes that researchers are evaluating. The strength of relationship between customers and brands is enhanced by emotional engagement. Interactive interfaces that allow customers to visualize information is considered vital in successful marketing strategies (Iqbal et al., 2018). In this regard, customer dynamics is regarded as the flow of comparison, searching and evaluation that customers make in their interactions with brands.

The quality of services is also one of the issues that continue to dominate current research on customer-technology interface. Iqbal et al. (2018) contends that although the topic of service quality has been covered extensively in research for decades, current researchers approach from the perspective of self-service technology (SST). The technology affects how customers achieve satisfaction with brands, enhance their loyalty, and adopt positive behavior. The evolution of Internet of Things (IoT) has increasing ramifications of the marketing approaches and how brands connect with target consumers (Turner & Szymkowiak, 2019). The privacy of customers as marketers adopt different promotional strategies using these evolving and new strategies is of growing concern.

Cyber security and the risk of illegal acquisition and use of consumer information are some of the challenges that researchers are actively evaluating (Wind, 2020). Application of artificial intelligence in marketing profession presents ethical concerns. Marketers are increasingly coming under scrutiny for failing to protect the privacy of customer information. Research indicates that nearly all technologies arising in modern marketplaces suffer from certain forms of vulnerability (Turner & Szymkowiak, 2019). Criminals constantly locate the vulnerabilities and exploit them to access vital information. Using machines and robots to persuade and influence customers is also becoming an issue of ethical significance (Wind, 2020). Current research determines that ethical concerns relating to application of technology to achieve marketing goals is of great importance.

Future Research on Customer-Technology Interface

The extensive research focusing on customer-technology interface is not fully exhaustive. Researchers recommend further research on the role of automation in enhancing or undermining marketing functions (Turner & Szymkowiak, 2019). The proliferation of automated marketing media has fundamentally altered how marketers device promotional strategies. However, there are concerns that it could be hurting the objectives by delivering generalized understanding of varied consumer segments (Iqbal et al., 2018). Highly personalized data content is vital in strategic marketing, an issues that automated marketing may fail to enhance. Another area recommended for research includes the changing cultural value of technology for consumers in emerging economies. The development of China and India as major centers for international marketing is intriguing for future marketers. However, the perception of technology and its role in delivering marketing message varies from one culture to another (Wind, 2020). It is vital to understand the role played by cultures in influencing technological adoption is essential.

Annotated Bibliography

Iqbal, M. S., Hassan, M. U., & Habibah, U. (2018). Impact of self-service technology (SST) service quality on customer loyalty and behavioral intention: The mediating role of customer satisfaction. Cogent Business & Management5.

This article examined how technology development affects the quality of customer service. In particular, the authors note that self-service technologies have a powerful effect on how brands interact with their target customers. The authors sought to examine how SST affect customer loyalty and experience. Researchers concluded that there is a direct relationship between SST on one hand and customer loyalty and service quality on the other.

Turner, J. J., & Szymkowiak, A. (2019). An analysis into early customer experiences of self-service checkouts: Lessons for improved usability. Engineering Management in Production and Services11(1), 36-50.

            The authors examine how self-service technologies are shaping modern marketing strategies. The authors delve into several incidences relating to SSTs to determine aspects that make the technology repugnant to some consumers and those that enhance their perception of the technology. The article further discusses the implications of SSTs on marketing management and researchers.

Wind, T. J. A. (2020). Ethics of the marketing communication of AI-based services (Master’s thesis, University of Twente).

In this article Wind (2020) examines the ethical concepts associated with marketing using modern technologies. The author examines how artificial intelligence, robotic technology, big data, and other emerging technologies are permeating modern marketing techniques. However, these novel approaches to marketing have serious implications on customer privacy rights. The author concludes that marketing professional can enhance the power of brand by adopting marketing strategies that protect the identity and value of customer data.

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Role of Marketing Techniques in Organizational Growth

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Role of Marketing Techniques in Organizational Growth

Customer analysis is a common approach that marketers use to plan and execute strategies for promoting product sales. The ability to satisfy and exceed customer expectations has major implications on realization of strategic company goals (Schiavi & Behr, 2018). Marketing executives apply various marketing techniques to increase awareness of existing products and services. They achieve this goal through application of emerging technologies to collect and analyze to gain insight in market conditions. Over the past decade, organizations have turned their attention on information technology to drive their sales and increase market share (Cascio & Montealegre, 2016). Despite the massive benefits associated with application of marketing technology in driving company growth strategies, many organizations are yet to exploit fully data-driven marketing techniques to spur industrial growth.

Background of the Problem

The role of marketing in supporting business growth remain critical in modern organizations. Managers around the world are recognizing the need to develop marketing techniques that align current market information with the organizational strategic objectives. The emergence of an increasingly open economy means that globalization of consumer tastes and preference must be well understood as part of crafting marketing techniques (Schiavi & Behr, 2018). Ineffective marketing strategies can result in poor outcomes across business portfolios and undermine the company mission and vision. It is therefore important that marketing integrate customer-centric data-driven research to craft techniques that will raise the market awareness of a company’s products and services (Wani & Jabin, 2018). Marketing informatics refers to the technique of using empirically collected and analyzed data to promote buying and selling of a product and service.

Successful organizations are using the vast and unprecedented amount of data traffic to market products and services. The information helps organizations to understand changing customer tastes and preferences, trends in adoption of new products, and drivers of consumption and demand within target markets (Grewal et al., 2020. Proper analysis and application of this data in marketing techniques are critical to positioning an organization for competitive advantage. While marketing informatics provide this vital data, there is a discrepancy between awareness of the importance of marketing analytics and the adoption of the marketing informatics to support organizational growth and development.

 Schiavi and Behr (2018 aver that in 2015 less than 20% of American companies had adopted emerging marketing technologies such as Big Data in marketing techniques. Much of current research literature examines the significance of applying informatics in supporting business growth. However, there is limited literature examining low pace of adopting emerging informational technologies in marketing to support organizational goals.

It is important to understand drivers of technological adoption in marketing techniques and how they can support business development. It is also vital to understand bottlenecks to technology and data-driven marketing techniques as integral components of organizational growth (Espinosa et al., 2019). Artificial intelligence and robotic technology are gaining acceptance and application in the manufacturing and service industries.

Technology is an integral competitive component for modern organization. More important is the need to adopt these technologies appropriately in marketing to inform consumer behavior and support market intelligence as a cornerstone for the choice of products produced and supplied to specific market segments (Cascio & Montealegre, 2016). Marketing informatics is particularly vital in the digital age where a vast amount of data is produced daily. 

Problem Statement

The problem to be addressed is the low adoption of marketing informatics and technology to drive organization growth in the United States. Many organizations are keen to avoid disruptive technologies. Espinosa et al. (2019) noted that many business organizations struggle to adopt emerging technologies in their marketing processes. Resistance to adopting new technology in marketing planning may render an organization unresponsive to the changing customer expectations. Furthermore, Wani and Jabin (2018) stated that data analytics challenges is the single major challenge in Big Data accounting for 35% of the challenges relating to emerging technology. These failures have a direct impact on developing effective marketing strategies that support business growth.

Data-driven marketing is set to dominate effective marketing techniques over the coming decades (Grewal et al., 2020). It is essential to understand factors that hinder adoption of emerging technology in marketing techniques and how they can be nurtured to support strategic business goals. Research findings from this study will help decision makers in organization to realign marketing techniques with the overall business strategies to foster commercial growth.

References

Cascio, W. F., & Montealegre, R. (2016). How technology is changing work and organizations. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior3, 349-375.

Espinosa, J. A., Kaisler, S., Armour, F., & Money, W. (2019, January). Big Data Redux: New Issues and Challenges Moving Forward. In Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.

Grewal, D., Hulland, J., Kopalle, P. K., & Karahanna, E. (2020). The future of technology and marketing: a multidisciplinary perspective.

Schiavi, G. S., & Behr, A. (2018). Emerging technologies and new business models: a review on disruptive business models. Innovation & Management Review.

Wani, M. A., & Jabin, S. (2018). Big data: issues, challenges, and techniques in business intelligence. In Big data analytics (pp. 613-628). Springer, Singapore.

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Role of Marketing Techniques in Organizational Growth

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Sample Essay

Role of Marketing Techniques in Organizational Growth

Customer analysis is a common approach that marketers use to plan and execute strategies for promoting product sales. The ability to satisfy and exceed customer expectations has major implications on realization of strategic company goals (Schiavi & Behr, 2018). Marketing executives apply various marketing techniques to increase awareness of existing products and services. Some of these marketing techniques includes email marketing, social media marketing, and content marketing. They achieve this goal through application of emerging technologies to collect and analyze to gain insight in market conditions. Some of these goals includes increasing the market share, increasing profitability index, and reducing expenditure. Over the past decade, organizations have turned their attention on information technology to drive their sales and increase market share (Cascio & Montealegre, 2016). Despite the massive benefits associated with application of marketing technology in driving company growth strategies, many organizations are yet to exploit fully data-driven marketing techniques to spur industrial growth. Good examples of such organizations are Google LLC and Gucci, which has fully adopted the concept of digital marketing to market their products.

Background of the Problem

The role of marketing in supporting business growth remain critical in modern organizations. Managers around the world are recognizing the need to develop marketing techniques that align current market information with the organizational strategic objectives. The emergence of an increasingly open economy means that globalization of consumer tastes and preference must be well understood as part of crafting marketing techniques (Schiavi & Behr, 2018). Ineffective marketing strategies can result in poor outcomes across business portfolios and undermine the company mission and vision. Such poor outcomes include losing customers, losing the market share, or lack of competitive advantage. It is therefore important that marketing integrate customer-centric data-driven research to craft techniques that will raise the market awareness of a company’s products and services (Wani & Jabin, 2018). Marketing informatics refers to the technique of using empirically collected and analyzed data to promote buying and selling of a product and service.

Successful organizations are using the vast and unprecedented amount of data traffic to market products and services. The information helps organizations to understand changing customer tastes and preferences, trends in adoption of new products, and drivers of consumption and demand within target markets (Grewal et al., 2020. Proper analysis and application of this data in marketing techniques are critical to positioning an organization for competitive advantage. While marketing informatics provide this vital data, there is a discrepancy between awareness of the importance of marketing analytics and the adoption of the marketing informatics to support organizational growth and development.

 Schiavi and Behr (2018) states that in 2015, less than 20% of American companies had adopted emerging marketing technologies such as Big Data in marketing techniques. Some of the few that had adopted emerging marketing technologies includes the American Express, and Procter & Gamble.  Much of current research literature examines the significance of applying informatics in supporting business growth. However, there is limited literature examining low pace of adopting emerging informational technologies in marketing to support organizational goals.

It is important to understand drivers of technological adoption in marketing techniques and how they can support business development. It is also vital to understand bottlenecks to technology and data-driven marketing techniques as integral components of organizational growth (Espinosa et al., 2019). Artificial intelligence and robotic technology are gaining acceptance and application in the manufacturing and service industries.

Technology is an integral competitive component for modern organization. More important is the need to adopt these technologies appropriately in marketing to inform consumer behavior and support market intelligence as a cornerstone for the choice of products produced and supplied to specific market segments (Cascio & Montealegre, 2016). Marketing informatics is particularly vital in the digital age where a vast amount of data is produced daily. 

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Problem Statement

The problem to be addressed is the low adoption of marketing informatics and technology to drive organization growth in the clothes retail industry in New York, the United States. Many organizations are keen to avoid disruptive technologies, which are innovations that alters the ways consumers and businesses operate. Espinosa et al. (2019) noted that many business organizations struggle to adopt emerging technologies in their marketing processes. Resistance to adopting new technology in marketing planning may render an organization unresponsive to the changing customer expectations. Furthermore, Wani and Jabin (2018) stated that data analytics challenges is the single major challenge in Big Data accounting for 35% of the challenges relating to emerging technology. These failures have a direct impact on developing effective marketing strategies that support business growth.

Data-driven marketing is set to dominate effective marketing techniques over the coming decades (Grewal et al., 2020). It is essential to understand factors that hinder adoption of emerging technology in marketing techniques and how they can be nurtured to support strategic business goals. Research findings from this study will help decision makers in organization’s to realign marketing techniques with the overall business strategies to foster commercial growth.

Research Question

  1. Why are high number of retail companies in the clothes industry in New York failing to adopt marketing informatics and technology to drive growth? (Quantitative)

Hypothesis: Most retail companies in the clothes industry are not willing to adopt a disruptive technology.

  • How does marketing informatics and technology promote organizational growth? (Qualitative)

Hypothesis: Marketing informatics and technology enhance the sale of goods and services, and enhance company’s market share, thus promoting growth.

The questions relate to the problem statement by seeking to analyze the reason why there is low adoption of marketing informatics and technology to drive organization growth in the clothes retail industry in New York, the United States. Thus, the research question seek to address the problem raised in the problem statement.

References

Cascio, W. F., & Montealegre, R. (2016). How technology is changing work and organizations. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior3, 349-375.

Espinosa, J. A., Kaisler, S., Armour, F., & Money, W. (2019, January). Big Data Redux: New Issues and Challenges Moving Forward. In Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.

Grewal, D., Hulland, J., Kopalle, P. K., & Karahanna, E. (2020). The future of technology and marketing: a multidisciplinary perspective.

Schiavi, G. S., & Behr, A. (2018). Emerging technologies and new business models: a review on disruptive business models. Innovation & Management Review.

Wani, M. A., & Jabin, S. (2018). Big data: issues, challenges, and techniques in business intelligence. In Big data analytics (pp. 613-628). Springer, Singapore.

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In 75 to 100 words, explain why the Bill of Rights was added to the United States Constitution.

Arguing that the Framers just wanted a Bill of Rights to protect the people from abuses by the government and/or to protect the rights of the people. 15 points

Point breakdown: Framers desires to protect rights=5 points. Bill of Rights added to protect rights=5. General effort in creating a response: 5 points.

Discusses Antifederalist opposition to the Constitution and logic for including a Bill of Rights: 1+1 point

Discusses Federalists initial rejection of the Anti-Federalist position and willingness to compromise: 1+1

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 INSTRUCTIONS
Topic 5 Short Essay Questions on the Bill of Rights Rubric

Question 1: In 75 to 100 words, explain why the Bill of Rights was added to the United States Constitution.

Arguing that the Framers just wanted a Bill of Rights to protect the people from abuses by the government and/or to protect the rights of the people. 15 points

Point breakdown: Framers desires to protect rights=5 points. Bill of Rights added to protect rights=5. General effort in creating a response: 5 points.

Discusses Antifederalist opposition to the Constitution and logic for including a Bill of Rights: 1+1 point

Discusses Federalists initial rejection of the Anti-Federalist position and willingness to compromise: 1+1

The addition of the Bill of Rights to the Constitution emerges as a compromise among conflicting groups of Federalists and Anti-Federalists to make the Constitution more acceptable to everyone in the United States: 2 points.

Example of an ideal answer:

“The Anti-Federalists thought the Constitution gave too much power to the central government at the expense of the states and individuals. The Federalists disagreed, especially initially, and generally opposed the inclusion of a Bill of Rights (students could but are not required to state why, such as that they thought it would open the door to abuse by letting the national government do anything that was not expressly forbidden). However, some of the Federalists eventually agreed to a compromise where the Bill of Rights the Anti-Federalists wanted was added to the Constitution to ensure enough support from both sides to ensure acceptance of the Constitution by the American people as a whole”. 20 points.

Question 2: Define the term enumerated powers, and identify which of the powers provided to the United States government are considered enumerated. It is worth a total of 20 points. Here is the breakdown for those points:

Define the term enumerated powers: 11 points

Identify and explain a minimum of 5 powers associated with enumerated powers: 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1=10 points

Supporting sources: 10 points

Cite sources in text and as a bibliographic reference for Essay Part 1: 2+2 points: 4 points

Cite sources in text and as a bibliographic reference for Essay Part 2: 2+2 points: 4 points

Some Guidance and Tips for the Assignment:

In 75 to 100 words, explain why the Bill of Rights was added to the United States Constitution.
The following provides a general overview of the kinds of things to address when examining this question. You may choose to draw on this portion of the Announcement or other class materials.

In terms of why the Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution, initially it was the Anti-Federalists who demanded a Bill of Rights, not the Federalists who supported the stronger central government offered by the Constitution; the Anti-Federalists were suspicious of the Federalist desire for a strong central government and they insisted that a bill of rights be added. The Federalists, initially objected, but some such as James Madison came to accept the arguments of the Anti-Federalists (while others such as Alexander Hamilton disagreed) and as part of the deal for ratifying the Constitution, a Bill of Rights was added to it (Barbour and Wright, 2015, pp. 83-85, 138-139).

Federalists advocated for a stronger central government as a way to advanced economic advancement and political stability and order, which would, among other things create a safe environment for investment (Barbour and Wright, p. 82). Among other things they felt that ambition and corruption inevitable in politics were inevitable, which was a sharp contrast from what they viewed as the naïve Anti-Federalists who believed they could keep government pure and free of corruption by keeping it small, local, and rural (Barbour and Wright, pp. 82-83). As seen below in Madison’s discussion of Federalist No. 10 and the structure of the constitution, the emphasis is on “institutions and rules, or mechanical things such as size and representation to block human nature, or divisive factions” (Barbour and Wright, pp. 82-84). Thus, for Federalists, “Ambition can counter ambition via mechanical manipulation through the separation of powers and checks and balances” (Barbour and Wright, pp. 83-84).

At the same time, in order to win over enough support for the Constitution, the Federalists found that they were effectively forced to include a Bill of Rights designed to protect individual rights from national government actions which came to satisfy Anti-Federalists (Barbour and Wright, pp. 83-84). Federalists may have felt it was unnecessary and “government might assume could do anything that was not expressly forbidden”, but in the end, the Federalists had to accept a Bill of Rights to achieve their goals of getting the constitution passed at least partly by accepting the Bill of Rights associated with the Anti-Federalists (Barbour and Wright, pp. 83-85). This is one more example of how compromise and consensus building play a central role in the creation of the modern American government.

In 75 to 100 words, define the term enumerated powers, and identify which of the powers provided to the United States government are considered enumerated?
When it comes to defining enumerated powers, a good place to start are that these “are a list of congressional powers specifically named in the Constitution, and reflect the strongest statement of national power,” as these are powers specifically given to the national government (Barbour and Wright 2020, p. 103). In terms of identifying enumerated powers, I suggest looking at Article I, section 8 of the Constitution.

I hope this helps and please let me know if you have any questions.

References:

Barbour, C., and G.C. Wright. (2015). Keeping the Republic (7th Edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: CQ Press. Retrieved from http://gcumedia.com/digital-resources/sage/2014/keeping-the-republic_power-and-citizenship-in-american-politics_ebook_7e.php

“Cambridge Analytica,” (n.d.). Wikipedia.org. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambridge_Analytica#Privacy_issues

Patterson, T. E. (2013). The American Democracy, (11thed.). New York: McGraw Hill.

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Is vegetarianism the only option to a healthy living? Discuss

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SAMPLE ESSAY

Vegetarianism and Healthy Living

A majority of people embrace vegetarianism with the aim of healthy living. This involves avoiding consuming meat and other byproducts from animals such as eggs and milk. Although some individuals might abstain from meat consumption out of respect for sentient life and animal rights advocacy, a majority of vegetarians considers it for health purposes (Norris & Messina, 2011). However, healthy living is a culmination of various activities, which include being physically active, eating a variety of healthy meals, and maintaining a healthy body weight. Thus, vegetarianism is not the only option for healthy living.

Vegetarianism has a significant impact on the health of an individual. Prior studies indicate that regular intake of vegetables, nuts, and fruits reduce premature death cases (Mehta, 2018). However, leading a healthy life requires doing more than abstaining from unhealthy foods like meat. For instance, healthy living involves the regular consumption of a healthy diet, which is not limited to vegetables. Individuals are also required to check their physical activity levels (Joseph-Shehu & Ncama, 2017). In addition, healthy living also includes avoiding risky behaviors such as smoking and controlling alcohol intake levels. People should further ensure that their body mass index (BMI) is between 18.5 and 24.9 to be considered as living healthy.

In conclusion, despite the connection between the two concepts, vegetarianism is not the only ingredient for healthy living. Healthy lifestyles involve consuming healthy diets and regularly engaging in body exercises. Moderating the level of alcohol consumed and avoiding tobacco products also play a significant role in enhancing a healthy living. Thus, there is more to a healthy life than vegetarianism.

References

Joseph-Shehu, E. M. & Ncama, B., 2017. Evidence on health-promoting lifestyle practices and information and communication technologies: scoping review protocol. NCBI, 7(3), pp. 1-5.

Mehta , V., 2018. Vegetarian Diet: A Boon or Bane for Health?. Journal of Medical Research and Innovation, 2(1), pp. 1172-1179.

Norris, J. & Messina, V., 2011. Vegan for Life: Everything You Need to Know to Be Healthy and Fit on a Plant-Based Diet. 2 ed. Chicago: Hachette Books.

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The Sunshine Stove

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SAMPLE ESSAY
Problems
One of the significant problems identified in the case study affecting the introduction of the Sunshine Stove brand in Nepal is the lack of a marketing framework. Another issue affecting the brand’s success in the country is low purchasing power among the targeted consumers. Moreover, the Altur-nate Innovation Company is affected by the high production cost of the product in Nepal, making it hard for an average citizen to afford the stove.
Causes
The lack of an existing marketing framework in Nepal for the Sunshine Stove results from the fact that the company is new in the market. The issue of low purchasing power among Nepalese results from high poverty levels among the citizens. For instance, a majority of the citizens earn between $1 and $3 per day, making the product a luxury among commoners. In addition, the high production cost stems from a lack of innovation in manufacturing and the high market price for capital goods.
Recommendations
The Altur-nate Innovation Company should consider partnering with existing companies in Nepal through joint ventures to address the marketing problem. Notably, the sunshine stove might not be a success if the top management team will not solve the marketing problem as soon as possible. Such is despite offering a product that aims to change the lives of a majority of Nepalese. The company should consider partnering with organizations specializing in the marketing and distribution of similar products in Nepal to resolve the issue. Notably, marketing a relatively new product in a foreign market is a significant challenge affecting manufacturers. The Altur-nate Innovation Company may take years to establish itself in the country due to lack of an effective marketing strategy. However, the fact that there exist many well-established organizations in the country that controls the consumers market makes it easy for the new entrant to succeed through collaboration. Although collaboration is an expensive venture, as the company will have to offer a part of its share capital to the new marketing partner, it is the only strategy that addresses the poor marketing framework and enhance the company’s immediate success in the country.
The company should further consider streamlining the manufacturing process to address the high cost of production and low purchasing power among the targeted market. Notably, streamlining the process requires a lot of time and resources, thus the need to address the problem on a long-term basis. In this case, to address the issue of high-cost production, the company should invest in new technologies to reduce the time taken to manufacture a single unit and the human labor required. Automating the manufacturing plants will enhance the mass production of the sunshine stove, and reduce the number of employees, thus reducing the cost of production significantly. The company should also consider researching on cheap raw materials that perform better. Lowering the cost of production will play a significant role in addressing the issue of low purchasing power among Nepalese. In this case, the low production cost will force the company to sell the product at a relatively lower price, thus attracting the mass market.

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Marketing for Behavioral Change

SAMPLE ESSAY

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Marketing for Behavioral Change

Question 2

The theory of reasoned actions is one of the major types of behavioural change models. The hypothesis outlines the relationship between behaviours and attitude in human beings. It predicts social acts based on their pre-existing behavioural intentions and beliefs. The theory can also be used to analyze the individual’s behavioural change process, explaining each of the six steps involved (Browning & Thomas, 2016). I can apply the theory of reasoned actions to examine my behavioural change process, as I always consider the consequences before performing a new behaviour.

My behavioural change process involves a total of six steps, which are necessary for ensuring that the changes made lasts. The first step is the pre-contemplation stage, where I am in denial on whether a particular trait requires change or not. Here, the concept of reasoned actions assists me in convincing myself that I need to change the behaviour or face the consequences. The step is referred to as the contemplation stage, and it involves understanding the benefits of the desired change. However, the cost or the results of the change stands out, thus deterring me from pursuing a change in behaviour. Comparing the value and benefits of the desired change through reasoning assists me to move to the next stage of the process (Ajzen, 2017). Preparations for the desired change is the third step, where I prepare myself both physically and emotionally before initiating the change. The fourth step in the process involves taking the actual action to accomplish the desired goal. Here, the concept of reasoned actions plays a significant role in influencing me to persist. The next step is the maintenance phase, where I embrace the new behaviours and avoid my former trait. Maintaining the newly acquired behaviour requires a lot of reasoning to convince myself from going back to old practices. Relapse is the last stage of behavioural change, where one feels disappointed or frustrated.  Here the concept of reasoned actions is necessary for motivating an individual to keep up with the new behaviour.

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Question 3

Planning a successful campaign in social marketing requires a lot of research, especially on the target market. Social marketing includes a lot of research methods, and it’s up to the project manager to select the best methodology that fits the campaign. Some of these research methods include formative research, qualitative research, efficacy testing, and process research (Donovan & Henley, 2010). To plan campaigns in my behaviour change project, I would consider the formative research. The method plays a significant role in informing on the products, development of interventions, and communication tools. It tells the researcher what is likely to work best for the proposed campaign.

One of the primary reasons for employing formative research in conducting my campaigns is its ability in assisting me in exploring and identifying the different means of achieving the set goals available. This play a significant role in selecting the best course of action to make the desired change. Another primary reason for employing the method in my campaign is its ability to accommodate other quantitative research methods. Such include literature reviews and surveys to provide the necessary data and develop the hypothesis. The ability to combine other research methods with the process makes the formative research ideal for complex situations (Donovan & Henley, 2010). However, the technique should be used carefully to achieve the desired results. For instance, the researcher should consider employing the face to face interview involving all the stakeholders. This enables the researcher to determine the best interventions to address the problem and at the same time, measure their effects directly. The method should further explore the social context of an individual.

References

Ajzen, I. (2017). From Intentions to Actions: A Theory of Planned Behavior. Springers, 11-39.

Browning, C., & Thomas, S. (2016). Behavioural Change: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Social and Public Health. London: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Donovan, R., & Henley, N. (2010). Principles and practice of social marketing. Chicago: Cambridge University Press.

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The Entry and Expansion Strategies of Toyota Motor Corporation

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SAMPLE ESSAY

Background of the Toyota Motor Corporation

Toyota is a global multinational automotive manufacturer based in Japan. The company is ranked position six in the comprehensive list of companies in regards to revenue. Toyota was founded on 28 August 1937 by Kiichiro Toyoda in Japan as a subsidiary of Toyota industries. Globally, the company employs more than 364,445 individuals, a majority of whom are concentrated in its headquarters (Nkomo, 2016). Currently, Toyota is credited as the leading global manufacturer of hybrid electric vehicles, which are serving as the alternatives for the traditional fuel engine. Toyota is renowned for a series of products that include automobiles, commercial vehicles, luxury vehicles, and engines. For the 2019 financial year, the company’s income revenue was estimated at US$272 billion. The organization’s global presence is evident as it is listed in various leading stock markets around the world such as the London Stock Exchange, Tokyo Stock Exchange, and New York Stock Exchange (Nkomo, 2016). Apart from the Toyota brand, the company also owns other four renowned brands, which include Lexus, Hino, Daihatsu, and Ranz. Toyota Motor Corporation further has capital stakes in other car manufacturers such as Mazda, Subaru, Isuzu, and Sichuan FAW.

The company’s penetration in the global market resulted from the development of various entry and expansion strategies, which are responsible for the current position of Toyota as the market leader. Currently, the organization operates multiple manufacturing and assembly plants in different countries across the world. The company had established plants in 28 states as of 2017, which include Japan, the United States of America, Mexico, Canada, Sri-Lanka, India, Egypt, Russia, and Vietnam (Andrews & Simon, 2011). As of 2007, Toyota’s geographical sales were higher in North America, followed by Japan, Europe, and Asia, respectively. The expansion to the international market has enhanced the company’s production level from 21 units in 1935 to 10,466,451 units in 2017.

The paper will critically analyze both the entry and expansion strategies employed by Toyota Motor Corporation to venture in new international markets. The critical factors driving adoption of these strategies that include recourse based and institutional-based factors will be analyzed. Moreover, the success rate of the outlined plans will be put into consideration to examine whether the prudent in adopting the strategies or not.

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Discussion of the strategies

1.      Entry strategies

Toyota Motor Corporation employed several approaches to enter the global market. The company’s journey to the worldwide supremacy, especially in line to vehicle production and sale is characterized by a series of both challenges and success. The fact that the company expanded from Toyota, Japan, to all regions across the world required the implementation of some strategies. One of the major strategies employed by Toyota Motor Corporation to enter the foreign market is the three development strategy, which includes the cross-nation space strategy,[a1]  building auto parts manufacturing bases, and the establishment of joint ventures strategy. Notably, the approach is a culmination of three major initiative, which is credited for enhancing the systematic growth of Toyota in the global market. The initial stage of the multi-development strategy is the cross-nation space strategy. The initiative was intended at marketing Toyota products in Japan and other nations around the world. The company’s executives expected at blanketing the global market with Toyota products through high-level marketing (Hazno, 2011). The strategy also involved establishing local sales networks in different countries. Thus, the cross-nation space strategy included both marketing the company’s product and creating functional systems with car dealers around the globe. Here, the company intended manufacturing and assembling vehicles in its Japanese plant but distribute them to all parts of the world through dealers. This was a clever strategy considering that the company would only spend money on marketing its products in foreign countries while car dealers would import Toyota vehicles directly from Japan based on the local demand. The strategy explains the reason why Toyota second plant was built in 1959, 20 years after erecting the Honsha plant.

The second entry strategy of the three development strategy [a2] adopted by Toyota was building auto parts manufacturing bases. This was the significant step of directly entering the foreign market, where the company made spare parts-manufacturing plants in various parts of the world. The move was followed by the establishment of different car manufacturing plants across the globe while opting to convert some auto-manufacturing plants to car manufacturing centers. A good example is the establishment of a subsidiary company in the US market-based in California in 1957. The last strategy in the three development initiative was the establishment of the joint ventures (JVs) with various local dealers and producing vehicles. The move saw the company establish different plants in multiple countries around the world. In most cases, the plants serve as the regional headquarters for various regions across six continents. A good example is the introduction of Toyota Canada Inc (Peng, 2018). In 1983, Toyota Motor North America that is headquartered in Plano, Texas, and a car manufacturing plant in Australia in 1963.

Another primary entry strategy employed by Toyota Motor Corporation is export. The approach involves moving vehicles manufactured in one country and selling them in another country. For Toyota, the export market was relatively lower in the 1950s, as the company was only selling a few vehicles outside Japan that mainly comprised trucks. However, the export strategy enabled the company to penetrate the international market by exporting more cars across the globe in the 1960s. Some of the models that were highly demanded by international customers at the time were Corona and Corolla. The strategy also involved the establishment of new assembly plants and distributors in Europe (Chang, 2015). This enhanced the export chain by enabling the company to move its products from one country to another at ease. One of the significant regions targeted by the company through its exporting strategy was North America. By 1970s, the region was ranked as the largest Toyota importer, especially when compared to other areas around the world. However, the strategy was halted by trade frictions in various European and North American countries, which were accelerated by a sudden rise in Toyota exports in the 1980s and 1990s. To counterattack the trade friction, the company deployed a new strategy, which involved enhancing its production capacity both in the two continents by erecting manufacturing plants. However, after 1995, export rose again resulting from global economic growth. The company recorded its highest shipping in 2007, selling more than 2.7 million units across the world (Hitt, 2017). However, the export level hits a record low in 2010 after the global financial crisis of 2008, exporting 1.57 million units.

Number of Exported Vehicles

Figure 1 Export market for Toyota Motors since its inception in 1937

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2. Expansion strategies

Expanding from a small automotive Japanese company to the current multinational corporation has not been an easy task for Toyota. The rise has involved some strategies, thus making the company a global leader as far as motor-vehicle manufacturing and sales are concerned. One of the significant expansion strategies employed by the company is the generic strategy (porter’s model). The initiative is a combination of two primary approaches, which include the broad differentiation and the cost leadership generic strategies (Parashar, 2018). In regards to the cost leadership generic strategy, the company strived to minimize both the production and management costs, which in turns reduce the market value of their products. Moreover, the broad differentiation generic strategy entails developing unique products and business models to enhance the company’s competitive advantage through the creation of unique products.

Another expansion strategy employed by the company are intensive growth strategies. One of these strategies in market penetration, which involves attracting more customers across the world. The company ensures that there are enough products for every market segment. For instance, the company has a variety of products such as SUV, Sedans, trucks, and luxury vehicles that serve different parts. Another primary strategy adopted by Toyota Motor Corporation under the intensive growth initiative is product development. Here, the company is engaged in an intense, innovative program to ensure that new and unique models are introduced in the market. This ensures that the company is responsive to the customers’ demand and preference (Yan, 2019).  The strategy also includes market development, where the company strives to sell to every market segment in the world. The fact that the company has already established itself in a majority of the major across the globe makes marketing development a supporting strategy to the intensive growth initiatives. The two primary approaches, the generic and the intensive growth strategies are responsible for the current expansion trend registered by Toyota Motor Corporation in the global market.

Critical factors driving adoption of these strategies

1.      Recourse based elements[a3] 

One of the significant factors affecting the adoption of entry and expansion strategies among multinational firms is the lack of enough resources. However, in the case of Toyota Motor Corporation, this is not the case, as the company has adopted more than five strategies to enhance its growth agenda (Toyota Motor Corporation, 2017). One of the significant factors enabling Toyota to adopt and implement such approaches is the availability of financial resources. This has enabled the company to fund some of its entry and expansion strategies that are expensive. A good example is the case of product development strategy, which includes an innovation program that is expensive to initiate and maintain. For instance, the company generated a revenue of ¥30,225,681 million and a net profit of ¥1,985,587 million in 2019, thus enabling it to fund its strategies. Another primary resource that is critical in driving the adoption of these strategies is enough workforce (Yan, 2019). Notably, the company has directly employed 370,870 individuals across the world. The high number of skilled laborers enables the company to adopt and implement its strategies without outsourcing labors. Such makes the implementation process highly affordable for the company and further enhance its success rate.

https://i0.wp.com/www.business-to-you.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/VRIO-Model.png

Figure 2VRIO Model summarizing Toyota’s internal characteristics and competitive advantages

2.      Institutional based factor[a4] 

There exist various institutional-based factors that play a critical role in enabling Toyota Motor Corporation to adopt both entry and expansion strategies. One of these factors is the enabling environment created by Japan; Toyota’s home country that promotes the culture of manufacturing and exporting. A good example is the case of an export contest organized by the Japanese government to encourage the exportation of products among various companies (Richarz, 2019). The development of multilateral trade deals between Japan and other countries across the world has enabled Toyota Motor Corporation to establish new manufacturing plants and export its products to a majority of countries around the globe. Moreover, international laws, especially promoting peace and stability have enabled the company to implement the entry and expansion programs across the world, especially in countries that were not friendly to Japanese product (Shimizu & Takeuchi, 2008). A good example is the erection of new manufacturing plants in Russia and the United States, which were Japanese’ political enemies during World War II. In addition, informal institutions, especially the concept of humanity assisted the company to penetrate even in areas that were not politically stable. The institution managed to foster a constrained entry in restricted markets through joint ventures. The company managed to overcame institutional limitations, especially in countries discouraging direct foreign investment through joint ventures.

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Outcomes/Results

Both the entry and expansion strategy worked successfully for the Toyota Motor Corporation. For instance, the entry and expansion strategy enabled the company to emerge as the most significant vehicle importer to the Chinese market despite the late entrant, with various new auto parts manufacturing plants scattered the across the country. Moreover, the export strategy has enabled the company to sell more vehicles in multiple states across the globe, with 4,030,805 vehicles being exported in 2011 alone (Thompson, 2017). Also, the intensive expansive strategy has seen the company establish manufacturing plants in 18 countries directly, and establishing joint-ventures in 14 countries. The company also owns a total of 16 factories in Japan alone.[a5]  This is a critical indication that the entry and expansion strategies adopted had a positive impact on the company.

Recommendation[a6] 

Notably, the company’s main challenge involves maintaining the status quo, considering that it has established itself as a global market leader in the automotive industry. It would be necessary for Toyota to expand its capital shares in other automotive companies within the next five years such as a Mercedes and Honda that are competing with its product. The company should further invest in the customization program as soon as possible by addressing the unique needs of its customers to ensure that its vehicles serve the purpose of specific regions. In addition, Toyota Motor Corporation should establish more new manufacturing plants within the next 10 years, especially in Africa, to tap the regional market potential and reduce the cost of export.

References

Andrews, A. P., & Simon, J. (2011). The Toyota crisis: an economic, operational and strategic analysis of the massive recall. Emerald Research, 1-9.

Chang, S. J. (2015). International Expansion Strategy of Japanese Firms: Capability Building through Sequential Entry. The Academy of Management Journal, 38(2), 383-407.

Hazno, A. (2011). International Entry Strategies (Report). SCRIBD, 37-43.

Hitt, M. (2017). Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases. London: Cengage Learning.

Liker, J. K. (2016). The Toyota Way: 14 Management Principles from the World’s Greatest Manufacturer. London: McGraw Hill Professional.

Luo, Y. (2019). Entry and Cooperative Strategies in International Business Expansion. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Nkomo, T. (2016). Analysis of Toyota Motor Corporation. Power Automotive Forecasting, 1-16.

Parashar, J. (2018). Understanding Toyota’s Marketing Strategy. Market Relists, 137-149.

Peng, M. W. (2018). Global Strategy. Chicago: Cengage Learning.

Richarz, A. (2019). There’s More Driving Toyota City Than Just Cars. The New York Times, 1-9.

Shimizu, N., & Takeuchi, H. (2008). The Contradictions That Drive Toyota’s Success. Harvard Business School, 1-15.

Stewart, T. A., & Raman, A. (2017). Lessons from Toyota’s Long Drive. Harvard Business Review, 28-36.

Thompson, A. (2017). Toyota’s Generic Strategy & Intensive Growth Strategies. Panmore Institute, 8-13.

Toyota Motor Corporation . (2017, June 4). Export Volume. Retrieved from Toyota Global Website: https://www.toyota-global.com/company/history_of_toyota/75years/data/automotive_business/sales/activity/japan/export_volume.html

Yan, J. (2019). Toyota adopting three-stage plan. China Daily, 1-7.


 [a1]Brief introduction for the three development strategy

 [a2]What is this

 [a3]This part, please revise based on the following three points

  • Properly and clearly identify resources & capabilities
    • How such resources & capabilities were used in entry & expansion strategy?
    • VRIO framework

 [a4]Please revise according to the following points

  • Formal institutions – Home country, host country, international laws, etc.
    • Informal institutions – Internal vs. external informal institutions
    • How did the institution foster/constrained entry & expansion?

How did the firm overcame institutional limitations

 [a5]Revised according to the following points

  • How far the entry and expansion strategy worked?
    • Positive or negative outcome.
    • Logical explanation for success or failure (could be based on Resource-based view and/or institution-based view)

 [a6]You should mention when and how

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