Strack, Martin, and Stepper (1988) reported that people rate cartoons as funnier when holding a pen in their teeth (which forced them to smile) than when holding a pen in their lips (which forced them to frown). A researcher attempted to replicate this result using a sample of n = 25 adults between the ages 40 and 45. For each person, the researcher recorded the difference between the rating obtained while smiling and the rating obtained by frowning. On average, the cartoons were rated funnier when the participants were smiling, with an average difference of M D = 1.6 with SS = 150.
In this problem, you do not have to calculate SS or the mean difference which is already provided.
Will there be a difference between the two conditions? Use a two-tailed test with α = .01 Show all the steps.
Please answer the question using all of the steps: null in word, alternative in words, null in symbols, alternative in symbols, critical region t, df, all steps in the analysis computing your repeated measure computed t, make a decision, and give a conclusion.