Plus point While life and lives sometimes become based on big decisions, often the smaller ones are the ones that matter the most. Our inability to follow routine everyday protocols makes the world a more dangerous place for ourselves and others. A few examples… Nearly 100,000 patients in the United States die each year from failure to follow simple instructions from doctors and nurses. Seriously. Hospital infections kill many people every year and almost all of those deaths are entirely preventable. Most plane crashes occur because pilots ignore the rules. Failure of the pilot to follow protocols is a primary factor that contributes to most incidents and accidents. An important way to attack these errors is to use checklists. The support of a checklist or checklist is provided by a new book, The Checklist Manifesto. In it, the author, surgeon Atul Gawande of Harvard Medical School notes, “The volume and complexity of what we know has exceeded our ability to deliver its benefits correctly, safely or reliably.” Unless, of course, we use checklists. Dr. Peter Pronovost, an intensive care specialist at Johns Hopkins University, developed his own operating room list, which included some “non-brainers,” such as washing hands with soap, putting sheets on every patient, and putting sterile gauze over the incisions. Within a year of the adoption of the checklist at Johns Hopkins University, the infection rate after the operation dropped from 11% to zero. According to Gawande, when using checklists to improve decisions, we should have the following instructions: • Include all “stupid, but critical” tasks so that they are not overlooked. • Make it mandatory for team members to inform others when a list item is completed (or not). • Empower team members to question their superiors about the checklist. • Allow improvisation in unusual circumstances. • Fully test the checklist before application. Gawande points out that lists aren’t just important for medical decision-making. Engineering, business, technology, security and transportation are the sectors that would benefit from further development and the use of checklists every day in decision-making. As one project manager pointed out, successful checklists detail both the sequence of activities needed as well as communication checkpoints to ensure dialogue between project participants. ” Point against Checklists: they work fine, except when they don’t. Checklists have a paradox that makes them of dubious utility: The more complex the decision-making, the more important the checklist seems to be. But the more complex the decision-making, the less likely it is that the checklist can be followed. Checklists can take a lot of time and impractical to follow. Driving a car is a routine, but complex process. Do you keep a checklist for your car for every time you sit behind the wheel? On the other hand, by their very nature, complex tasks can pose problems that fall outside the scope of the checklist. The last thing we need to solve are unanticipated or complicated problems such as memory loyalty of a checklist that is ill-suited to the problem at hand. Indeed, a problem with many bad decisions is that heuristics are often, too often, without thinking about whether the assumptions behind them are still valid. If we have learned anything from the financial crisis, it is that a model or heuristic is only as good as its assumptions. Assume that home prices are properly valued and are likely to continue to rise and make every sense in the world to be aggressive in borrowing. Countrywide and Fannie Mae had all sorts of rules, protocols and checklists that followed in making decisions making catastrophically bad loans. As for medical decision-making, as another doctor and writer, Sandeep Jauhar, pointed out, proponents of checklists often ignore the unintended consequences. Insurers compensate doctors for ticking boxes on checklists – such as prescribing antibiotics, even when there is no evidence that they are guaranteed that because this protocol favors the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, all of us are endangered by the behavior of adhering to the list. We want to think that we live in a world in which decision-making mistakes can be easily solved. We can mitigate some decisions by learning more about mistakes in decision-making, but one of the main learning points is that we need a healthy respect for the degree to which we are susceptible to mistakes. Checklists provide a false sense of security and an ignorance about causing you more problems than they solve.
Instructions: Conduct an internet search about differences in perception in different cultures and prepare a short essay. Once you finish searching for the information, integrate all the data and prepare a written report
integrating the selected articles. Include at least 3 to 5 jounal articles. From reading submit at least 10 recommendations. The final document should be between 7 to 10 pages in space double, letter Courier New 12.