Question 1 1. Janell has discovered in her literature review that people often learn by imitation an

Question 1 1. Janell has discovered in her literature review that people often learn by imitation and observation (termed social learning). For example, when children see an adult behave violently toward a doll, they often imitate this violent behavior. Janell decides to do a study in which children who are initially afraid of snakes either view an adult playing with a snake or view nothing at all. She thinks that the children who view an adult playing with a snake will be more likely to later pet a snake than children who view nothing at all. Which of the following statements best represents the hypothesis?Question 1 options:a. “Social learning refers to the idea that people often learn by imitation and observation.”b. “Children who view an adult playing with a snake will be more likely to later pet a snake than children who view nothing at all.”c. “Past research has found that when children see an adult behave violently toward a doll, they often imitate the violent behavior.”d. All of the above can be considered hypotheses.Question 2 2. Joanna, a budding undergraduate researcher, is interested in studying whether people see bright lights after they die. Why is this a poor research idea?Question 2 options:a. Everyone already knows that people see bright lights after they die.b. It is too big of an idea for an undergraduate to tackle.c. This project is not testable.d. None of the above.Question 3 3. Under which of the following circumstances would deception be allowed in a research project?Question 3 options:a. Deception is allowed when the research project will involve significant risk, such that otherwise, few people would volunteer to be in the study.b. Deception is allowed when a full debriefing will not be used.c. Deception is allowed when participants are not permitted to withdraw their data from the study.d. Deception is allowed when the results of a study would be contaminated by participants’ knowledge of the experiment.Question 4 4. Which of the following would be considered plagiarism?Question 4 options:a. The exact words from a source are put in quotes with the author’s last name, year of publication, and page number of the quote indicated.b. A paragraph from a source is used and the writer rearranges a few words in each sentence so that quote marks are unnecessary.c. A writer summarizes an article in her own words and uses a parenthetical reference with no quote marks.d. All of the above would be considered plagiarism.Question 5 5. Which of the following represents the BEST way to word this survey question?Question 5 options:a. “Do you agree that wealthy professional athletes are overpaid?”b. “Do you believe that professional athletes are overpaid?”c. “Do you agree that professional athletes are overpaid?”d. “Do you disagree that professional athletes are overpaid?”Question 6 6. Which of the following is a good operational definition of anxiety?Question 6 options:a. A feeling of apprehensionb. Butterflies in the stomachc. An uneasy sensationd. Score on the Taylor Manifest Anxiety ScaleQuestion 7 7. Which of the following depicts the correct order of sections in an APA-format paper?Question 7 options:a. Results, Method, Discussion, References, Tablesb. Method, Results, Discussion, Tables, Referencesc. Method, Tables, Results, Discussion, Referencesd. Method, Results, Discussion, References, TablesQuestion 8 8. Which component of the title page is written in all caps?Question 8 options:a. The running headb. The titlec. The author’s named. Nothing on the title page should be written in all caps.Question 9 9. What is an IRB?Question 9 options:a. A committee responsible for determining whether a proposed research project conforms to ethical standards.b. A committee responsible for determining whether a proposed research project is scientifically sound.c. A government panel responsible for evaluating grant proposals.d. A judicial committee responsible for evaluating plagiarism cases.Question 10 10. The Milgram obedience experiments had ethical problems because _____.Question 10 options:a. Milgram failed to debrief his participants.b. the project was not conducted by scientifically qualified personnel.c. the participants were under extreme emotional distress.d. the participants did not know they were in a study.Question 11 11. What is the Nuremburg Code?Question 11 options:a. An example of a research study in which participants were not provided with an informed consent.b. An example of a research study in which participants were not provided with a debriefing.c. An example of a research study in which participants were not allowed to discontinue their participation at any time.d. An ethics code that resulted from the trials of Nazi doctors.Question 12 12. Which of the following components of the research process should be (in real life) conducted first?Question 12 options:a. Conducting the projectb. Literature reviewc. Coming up with the hypothesisd. Analysis of research findingsQuestion 13 13. An empirical study is based on _____.Question 13 options:a. the presence of extraneous variables.b. synthetic statements.c. contradictory statements.d. objectively quantifiable observations.Question 14 14. The informed consent contains all of the following EXCEPT _____.Question 14 options:a. a statement about the deception used in the research.b. a sentence stating that participants are free to leave the experiment at any time.c. a line for the participant’s signature.d. a list of any risks associated with the study.Question 15 15. Janice wishes to ensure that she has equal numbers of freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors in her sample. She separates the population into subpopulations according to class rank and draws random samples from each subpopulation. Janice has engaged in ___________ sampling.Question 15 options:a. convenienceb. replacementc. stratified randomd. simple randomQuestion 16 16. Dennis would like to conduct a study in which participants taste five different brands of jam and decide which one they like best. To control for order effects, Dennis should use _____.Question 16 options:a. constancy.b. randomization.c. elimination.d. counterbalancing.Question 17 17. Which of the following is NOT associated with a within-subjects comparison?Question 17 options:a. Natural pairsb. Matched pairsc. Repeated measuresd. Random assignmentQuestion 18 18. A secondary source refers to _____.Question 18 options:a. an article read by a researcher and cited in his/her manuscript.b. an article consulted by a researcher as background but not actually cited in his/her manuscript.c. an article discussed in another reference and the reader does not have access to the original article.d. an article that has been plagiarized from another source.Question 19 19. Jessica wishes to understand the motivations of people who join the Hare Krishna group, so she joins and immerses herself in the group. Jessica has conducted what kind of research?Question 19 options:a. Naturalistic observationb. Archival researchc. Correlational researchd. Participant observationQuestion 20 20. What is one potential problem associated with the naturalistic observation method?Question 20 options:a. The setting is very artificial.b. There are a limited number of independent variables that can be manipulated.c. The presence of a researcher may alter participants’ behavior.d. Because the researcher is also a participant, he/she may lose objectivity.Question 21 21. Researchers use correlations to _____.Question 21 options:a. understand cause-and-effect relationships.b. make predictions.c. understand the axial coding process.d. all of the aboveQuestion 22 22. Which of the following is NOT part of the Nuremburg Code?Question 22 options:a. Participants should consent to participate in research.b. Risks should be avoided whenever possible.c. Projects should be conducted by scientifically qualified personnel.d. Deception in research is unethical and should be avoided.Question 23 23. Researchers have found that SAT scores predict first-semester grade point average. This demonstrates _________ validity.Question 23 options:a. criterionb. concurrentc. contentd. split-halfQuestion 24 24. Shaundra gave her new survey to 10 participants to get their reactions to the questions. She then made modifications to the survey and gave it to a larger sample. Shaundra has engaged in _____.Question 24 options:a. pilot testing.b. archival research.c. random samplingd. observational research.Question 25 25. Mary is interested in determining if active learning strategies promote better student learning than passive learning strategies. She teaches a group of volunteer students for one hour, using active learning strategies with half of the students and passive learning strategies with the other half of the students. The students are then given a test over the material and Mary records the number of items each student answers correctly. In this study, the independent variable is _______ and the dependent variable is _______.Question 25 options:a. type of learning strategy; number of correct answersb. number of correct answers; type of learning strategyc. number of correct answers; the testd. type of learning strategy; the testQuestion 26 26. Why is it important to use operational definitions in research?Question 26 options:a. It allows extraneous variables to be controlled.b. It allows other researchers to replicate the research.c. It is the only way to randomly assign participants to conditions.d. It is allows nuisance variables to be controlled.Question 27 27. Daniel would like to study a new way of teaching research methods. There are two sections of research methods being taught at 2 p.m. on Mondays and Wednesdays, so Daniel has one teacher use the new way and the other teacher use the old way. At the end of the semester, he finds that students who were taught the new way had higher grades than students taught the old way. What is the extraneous variable?Question 27 options:a. Grades at the end of the semesterb. Method of instruction (new versus old)c. The two teachersd. There is no extraneous variable in this study.Question 28 28. The goal in an experiment is to __________ the between-groups variability and ___________ the error variability.Question 28 options:a. maximize; maximizeb. minimize; minimizec. maximize; minimized. minimize; maximizeQuestion 29 29. Latitia conducted an experiment in which men watched an aggressive television program, and women watched a non-aggressive television program. Her results showed that people who watched the aggressive program were later more aggressive than people who watched the non-aggressive program. She concludes that aggressive television programming is detrimental to behavior. What is the biggest problem in Latitia’s experiment?Question 29 options:a. She has not used random selection procedures.b. She has confounded gender and type of television program.c. She should have used a correlated-groups design instead of an independent groups design.d. None of the above; there are no problems in Latitia’s experiment.Question 30 30. The _______ the within-group variability, the _______ the number of participants the researcher will need to find a statistically significant difference between groups.Question 30 options:a. greater; fewerb. lower; greaterc. greater; greaterd. None of the aboveQuestion 31 31. Why will a researcher need more participants to find a potential statistically significant difference when there is a high degree of within-group variability?Question 31 options:a. The scores are spread out within the groups, which makes it more difficult to see differences between groups.b. The scores are clustered together within the groups, which makes it more difficult to see differences between groups.c. The scores are spread out within the groups, which makes it easier to see differences between groups.d. None of the aboveQuestion 32 32. Which of the following is NOT one of the steps in developing a good survey?Question 32 options:a. group similar topics togetherb. choose appropriate response scalesc. develop instructions for the surveyd. making sure each item examines multiple issues at onceQuestion 33 33. Which of the following is true regarding experimenter characteristics?Question 33 options:a. Physiological characteristics of the experimenter can have an effect on participants, but psychological characteristics of the experimenter do not.b. Past research has shown that female experimenters are friendlier to participants than male experimenters.c. Both physiological and psychological characteristics of the experimenter can have an effect on participants.d. Experimenter characteristics are not problematic because experimenters use constancy in their research.Question 34 34. A study with good internal validity _____.Question 34 options:a. is free from confounds.b. has good temporal generalization.c. has good environmental generalization.d. has at least one interaction with selection.Question 35 35. The “Sports Illustrated jinx” refers to the fact that athletes who appear on the cover of the magazine often then experience a decline in performance afterwards. Some researchers attribute this to the fact that athletes who are placed on the cover are those who are at the top of their game, and performance naturally reverts back to a more normal level after time. These researchers are referring to the problem of _____.Question 35 options:a. statistical regression.b. mortality.c. selection.d. instrumentation.Question 36 36. Why do the groups have to be equivalent at the start of an experiment?Question 36 options:a. If the groups are not equivalent at the start of an experiment, the experiment is contaminated by ethnocentrism.b. If the groups are not equivalent at the start of an experiment, demand characteristics are more likely.c. If the groups are not equivalent at the start of an experiment, it is impossible to conduct a replication.d. If the groups are not equivalent at the start of an experiment, we cannot be certain that the IV caused any difference observed in the DV.Question 37 37. Tracy hopes that the results of her experiment are applicable to college students in general, not just the 100 students in her study. Tracy is concerned about _____.Question 37 options:a. internal validityb. statistical regression.c. external validity.d. demand characteristics.Question 38 38. The extensive use of white rats and college freshmen in psychological research represents a potential problem with ________ validity.Question 38 options:a. internalb. externalc. constructd. contentQuestion 39 39. What does a large number for variance mean?Question 39 options:a. The scores tend to be clustered together.b. The scores tend to be spread out.c. The distribution must be bimodal.d. The distribution must be normal.Question 40 40. Suppose in your English class, you earned a 70 on the first test (the class mean was 65 with SD = 3). In math, you earned a 70 on the first test (the class mean was 65 with SD = 5). In economics, you earned a 70 on the first test (the class mean was 65 with SD = 2). In which class did you do the best relative to the other students in the class?Question 40 options:a. Englishb. Mathc. Economicsd. You did the same in all three classes relative to the other students.Question 41 41. Which of the following types of questions allows the researcher to calculate an average or mean response?Question 41 options:open-endedyes-noLikert-type scaleforced alternativeQuestion 42 42. There is a perfect positive correlation in the data below:X Y25 4026 4327 4628 4929 52If someone scores a 30 on the X variable, what should we predict the Y value to be?Question 42 options:a. 30b. 52c. 55d. This cannot be determined from the information given.Question 43 43. Why was the Tuskegee syphilis project considered unethical?Question 43 options:a. Participants were not told the real purpose of the study.b. There were excessive risks for the participants.c. Participants did not have the right to discontinue participation.d. All of the aboveQuestion 44 44. Accepting the null hypothesis when the experimental hypothesis is true is called a(n) ____ error.Question 44 options:a. nullb. experimentalc. Type Id. Type IIQuestion 45 45. Which of the following can help minimize Type II errors?Question 45 options:a. Increase the sample sizeb. Decrease the sample sizec. Use one dependent variable instead of severald. Use convenience sampling instead of random samplingQuestion 46 46. By changing the significance level from .05 to .01, you _______ the chance for a Type I error and ________ the chance for a Type II error.Question 46 options:a. increase; increaseb. decrease; decreasec. increase; decreased. decrease; increaseQuestion 47 47. In one study, students read a fictitious job application. The applications are identical except that half have a female name (Joan) and half have a male name (John). The students rate the likelihood of the applicant succeeding at the job. What is the dependent variable?Question 47 options:a. the name on the job applicationb. the studentsc. the students’ ratings of the applicants’ successd. the gender of the studentsQuestion 48 48. Tammy conducted a study in which participants rank-ordered their favorite free-time activities. Tammy used a(n) ______ scale of measurement.Question 48 options:a. ordinalb. ratioc. nominald. intervalQuestion 49 49. Joseph would like to find a measure of central tendency for his occupation variable (measured as sales, professional, or other). Which measure should he use?Question 49 options:a. medianb. modec. meand. It is impossible to find central tendency for this variable.Question 50 50. Nora would like to conduct an experiment to determine whether behavior modification techniques can help children eliminate bedwetting. She obtains a sample of children who wet the bed and randomly assigns half to the behavior modification therapy and half to a control group who receive no therapy. After six months, she measures how often children in each group wet the bed. Suppose Nora obtains the following printout of information. What decision should Nora make?GROUP N M SDTherapy 10 1.60 1.07Control 10 5.50 0.85t = -9.00 df = 18 p = .001Question 50 options:a. The results are significant; children treated with behavioral modification therapy wet the bed less often than children in the control group.b. The results are not significant; children treated with behavioral modification therapy wet the bed less often than children in the control group.c. The results are significant; children treated with behavioral modification therapy and children in the control group did not differ in terms of bedwetting.d. The results are not significant; children treated with behavioral modification therapy and children in the control group did not differ in terms of bedwetting.Question 51 51. Frances wishes to study the effects of violent video games on children’s levels of aggression. As children come to the lab for the study, she flips a coin. If it turns up heads, the child plays a violent videogame. If it turns up tails, the child plays a nonviolent videogame. Frances has used the technique of _____.Question 51 options:a. random selectionb. random assignmentc. creating matched pairsd. correlated assignmentQuestion 52 52. Which of the following accurately depicts the structure of an introduction section?Question 52 options:a. The introduction should contain primarily opinions in the middle paragraphs and facts in the first and last paragraphs.b. The last paragraph of the introduction should provide all the background information on your topic.c. The introduction should begin broadly and then narrow to a specific focus.d. The introduction should begin with a specific focus and end broadly.Question 53 53. Rich has conducted a study in which he compares the reading skills of six-year-olds, seven-year-old, and eight-year-olds. What kind of statistical test should Rich use?Question 53 options:a. one-way ANOVAb. t-testc. three-way ANOVAd. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficientQuestion 54 54. Which of the following would be the best term, according to the APA Publication Manual?Question 54 options:a. Schizophrenicsb. People diagnosed with schizophreniac. Subjects diagnosed with schizophreniad. All are equally acceptable.Question 55 55. Elliot conducts a study with one experimental group and one control group. Elliot has _______ independent variable(s) with _______ group(s).Question 55 options:a. zero; twob. one; twoc. two; zerod. two; oneQuestion 56 56. James conducts a study on the number of churches and amount of crime and finds a strong positive relationship between the two (in other words, the more churches there are in a location, the more crime there is). What should James conclude?Question 56 options:a. Churches cause crime; therefore, cities should attempt to reduce the number of churches.b. Committing a crime causes people to go to church more in an effort to atone for their sins.c. High population density causes both churches and crime to increase in any geographical location.d. None of the above are appropriate conclusions.Question 57 57. _______ occurs when an uncontrolled extraneous variable varies systematically with the IV.Question 57 options:a. Confoundingb. Internal validityc. Extraneous samplingd. A cause-and-effect relationshipQuestion 58 58. What is one way to operationally define “casual clothing” in an experiment in which you manipulate the type of clothing customers where to a store?Question 58 options:a. clothing that is laid-back and not formalb. khakis and polo shirtsc. clothing that college-aged students would typically weard. clothing that is not dressy but also not sloppyQuestion 59 59. Suppose you conduct a one-way ANOVA and obtain the following means: M = 8.78 for Group 1, M = 6.55 for Group 2, and M = 4.22 for Group 3. Which of the following conclusions is correct?Question 59 options:a. Group 1 scored significantly higher than Group 2 or Group 3.b. All three means are significantly different from each other.c. Group 3 scored significantly lower than Group 1 or Group 2.d. Not enough information is provided to assess significance.Question 60 60. Suppose you were interested in conducting an experiment with two independent variables. Why should you use a factorial design instead of two separate experiments?Question 60 options:a. The factorial design allows you to test for interactions.b. The factorial design allows you to test for main effects.c. The factorial design has greater reliability than two separate experiments.d. The factorial design has a decreased chance of experimenter bias affecting the outcome.