Question 1 (2 points)Which of the following is NOT an empirical question?Question 1 options:Are women more talkative than men?Is dieting an effective weight loss strategy?Should we prohibit cell phone use while driving?Does cognitive psychotherapy help depressed people?SaveQuestion 2 (2 points)Which of the following is most clearly an example of an applied research question?Question 2 options:Is the tendency to take physical risks related to extroversion?Do peopleâs scores on a paperÂandÂpencil measures of empathy predict whether they will help a disabledperson cross the street?How does damage to the amygdala affect peopleâs experience of fear?Does the color of a recycling bin affect how much people recycle?SaveQuestion 3 (2 points)The tendency to notice evidence that is consistent with our beliefs and ignore evidence that is inconsistent withour beliefs is called _____.Question 3 options:wishful thinkingconfirmation biasskepticismcommon senseSaveQuestion 4 (2 points)Two important attitudes of scientists are skepticism and _____.Question 4 options:emotional neutralitymathematical abilitytolerance of uncertaintyreligious agnosticismSaveQuestion 5 (2 points)What is an empirically supported treatment?Question 5 options:a psychological treatment that has been shown to work by scientific researcha psychological treatment that has not yet been testeda psychological treatment that should work in theory but that does not work in practicea psychological treatment that can, in principle, be testedResearcher A says that people who got allowances as children are more financially responsible as adultsbecause they had more opportunity to learn how to handle money. Researcher B says that people who gotallowances as children are more financially responsible adults because they are responsible people in general â¦which is why their parents gave the allowances in the first place. Which of the following best describes this state ofaffairs?Question 6 options:The researchers share the same hypothesis but are proposing different phenomena.The researchers agree on the phenomenon but disagree about the theory.The researchers have the same theory but different hypotheses.The researchers are taking different perspectives on the same theory.SaveQuestion 7 (2 points)Which of the following is the best example of a phenomenon?Question 7 options:Smiling is a fundamental human behavior.Sam, a male waiter, drew a smiley face on a check and got a particularly poor tip.Smiling people put us in a good mood, causing us to be more likely to help smiling people.Smiling people are generally evaluated more positively than nonÂsmiling people.SaveQuestion 8 (2 points)When will researchers typically abandon a theory?Question 8 options:when it is criticized by other researchersas soon as a hypothesis based on the theory is disconfirmedafter several hypotheses based on the theory are disconfirmedafter approximately 10 to 15 yearsSaveQuestion 9 (2 points)Which of the following is a categorical variable?Question 9 options:eye colorIQnumber of lifetime sexual partnersshoe sizeSaveQuestion 10 (2 points)Which of the following is the most common type of sample in psychological research?Question 10 options:a convenience samplerandom samplea haphazard samplea stratified sampleThere is a statistical relationship between two variables if which of the following is true?Question 11 options:One of the variables has a higher mean than the other.The average level of one variable differs across levels of the other.The variables are conceptually similar (e.g., intelligence and common sense).all of the aboveSaveQuestion 12 (2 points)When you want to show that Variable X has a direct effect on Variable Y, what is the best kind of study to conduct?Question 12 options:a nonexperimental studyan experimentan observational studya surveySaveQuestion 13 (2 points)Which of the following could NOT be the independent variable in a true experimental design?Question 13 options:sexual abusestudy strategyroom temperaturetest scoreSaveQuestion 14 (2 points)Which of the following studies most clearly has the directionality problem?Question 14 options:A study on whether or not a person was sexually abused as a child and how paranoid he or she is as an adult.A study on the correlation between losing a limb and oneâs selfÂesteem.A study relating college studentsâ study habits to their final exam performance.A study on the relationship between how much negative emotion a person has and how many physicalsymptoms he or she has.SaveQuestion 15 (2 points)Which of the following reference citations has the best APAÂstyle format?Question 15 options:Unknown. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., second printing).Washington, DC.American Psychological Association. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (2009).Author: Washington, DCAmerican Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association(6th ed., second printing). Washington, DC: Author.No Author. (2009). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: Author.Question 16 (2 points)Which of the following rules about APA style is correct?Question 16 options:You must use a sansÂserif font.Times New Roman is an acceptable font.The entire paper has onceÂinch margins, except for the reference list, which has 0.5 inch margins.The entire paper is doubleÂspaced, except for the reference list, which is single spaced.SaveQuestion 17 (2 points)Which of the following inÂtext citations is formatted correctly in APA style?Question 17 options:Williams studied the effect of sleep deprivation on exam performance (2008).Williams (2008) studied the effect of sleep deprivation on exam performance.Sleep deprivation has a negative effect on exam performance (Williams, J. S., 2008).Sleep deprivation has a negative effect on exam performance (Williams).SaveQuestion 18 (2 points)Which of the following is the best example of a construct?Question 18 options:depressionnumber of siblingsheightannual incomeSaveQuestion 19 (2 points)Which of the following variables is measured at the ratio level?Question 19 options:religionintelligenceselfÂesteemnumber of siblingsSaveQuestion 20 (2 points)A low testÂretest correlation would probably not be a concern for a measure of which of the following?Question 20 options:moodintelligenceextroversionconscientiousnessQuestion 21 (2 points)Internal consistency is not relevant for which of the following measures?Question 21 options:the Rosenberg SelfÂEsteem Scalea rating of oneâs happiness on a 1ÂtoÂ10 scalethe Beck Depression Inventorya standard intelligence testSaveQuestion 22 (2 points)Imagine that a research methods instructor accidentally includes concepts on an exam that he did notactually cover in the course. This is a problem with which of the following?Question 22 options:the examâs face validitythe examâs discriminant validitythe examâs criterion validitythe examâs content validitySaveQuestion 23 (2 points)What are the two defining features of an experiment?Question 23 options:control of extraneous variables; statistical analysis of the resultsstatistical analysis of the results; a comparison of two groupsa comparison of two groups; manipulation of an independent variablemanipulation of an independent variable; control of extraneous variablesSaveQuestion 24 (2 points)Which of the following researchers probably worries most about the external validity of her studies?Question 24 options:Dr. Colfax is a behavioral neuroscientist who studies the functions of the amygdala.Dr. Dumbrowski is a personality psychologist who is interested in genetic effects on personality.Dr. Zamora is a cognitive psychologist who studies basic memory processes.Dr. Prentice is a consumer psychologist who works for the Target Corporation.SaveQuestion 25 (2 points)Which of the following is true?Question 25 options:Good experiments eliminate all extraneous variables.Every extraneous variable is also a confounding variable.Every confounding variable is also an extraneous variable.Every variable other than the independent and dependent variable is either an extraneous variable or aconfounding variable (but not both).Question 26 (2 points)Why are confounding variables a problem?Question 26 options:They provide an alternative explanation for any observed difference between conditions.They reduce internal validity.They make it difficult to tell if the independent variable was responsible for the effect on the dependentvariable.All of the above.SaveQuestion 27 (2 points)In an experiment, the participantsâ ages would be a confounding variable if which of the following were true?Question 27 options:The sample included both very old and very young participants.Each condition included both very old and very young participants.Participants in one condition were older on average than participants in another condition.Age was the independent variable.SaveQuestion 28 (2 points)Imagine that you are a participant in an experiment on the effects of morning exercise on mathematics performance.If this study uses a withinÂsubjects design, which of the following would you do?Question 28 options:One day you take a math test after having exercised in the morning; another day you take a math test after nothaving exercised in the morning.Either you exercise in the morning and then take a math test or you do not exercise in the morning and thentake a math test.You take a math test and then tell the researcher whether or not you exercised that morning.All of the above are valid withinÂsubjects designs.SaveQuestion 29 (2 points)A researcher is conducting a study in which the dependent variable is mental concentration. If it is a withinÂsubjectsdesign with lots of different conditions, then which of the following is most likely to be a problem for theresearcher?Question 29 options:practice effectfatigue effectcontext effectfloor effectSaveQuestion 30 (2 points)Guillermo conducts an experiment with two conditions using a withinÂsubjects design. If he is counterbalancing,what does this mean?Question 30 options:Some participants are presented with multiple stimuli under Condition A; others are presented with multiplestimuli under Condition b.Participants in one condition receive the treatment; participants in the other condition receive a placebo.Half the participants are in Condition A followed by Condition B; the rest are in Condition B followed byCondition A.There are an equal number of men and women in Condition A and Condition B.