Question 1 of 25 4.0 Points When assessing a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and o

Question 1 of 25

4.0 Points

When assessing a positive relationship between alcohol
consumption and oral cancer using a case-control study, increasing the sample
size of the study will result in which of the following

A.A
lower p value

B.A
greater odds ratio

C.A
smaller 95% confidence interval

D.A
& C only

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Question 2 of 25

4.0 Points

The measure of the benefit to the population derived by
modifying a risk factor is the:

A.risk
difference

B.etiological
fraction

C.population
etiologic fraction

D.population
risk difference

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Question 3 of 25

4.0 Points

An approach to estimating the effects due to the single
exposure factor is to compute the:

A.risk
difference

B.etiological
fraction

C.population
etiologic fraction

D.population
risk difference

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Question 4 of 25

4.0 Points

A statistical association may be causal or noncausal. In
addition, many diseases require that more than one factor be present for
disease to develop. Examples of multiple causation models include:

A.web
of causation

B.wheel
model

C.pie
model

D.all
of the above

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Question 5 of 25

4.0 Points

You are investigating the role of physical activity in heart
disease and suggest that physical activity protects against having a heart
attack. While presenting these data to your colleagues, someone asks if you
have thought about confounders such as factor X. This factor X could have
confounded your interpretation of the data if it

A.is
a factor for some other disease, but not heart disease.

B.is
a factor associated with physical activity and heart disease.

C.is
a part of the pathway by which physical activity affects heart disease.

D.has
caused a lack of follow-up of test subjects.

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Question 6 of 25

4.0 Points

The strategy which is not aimed at reducing selection bias
is:

A.development
of an explicit case definition

B.encouragement
of high participation rates.

C.standardized
protocol for structured interviews.

D.enrollment
of all cases in a defined time and region.

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Question 7 of 25

4.0 Points

The purpose of a double-blind study is to

A.achieve
comparability of cases and controls.

B.reduce
the effects of sampling variation.

C.avoid
observer and interviewee bias.

D.avoid
observer bias and sampling variation.

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Question 8 of 25

4.0 Points

Which of the following is not a method for controlling the
effects of confounding in epidemiologic studies

A.Randomization

B.Stratification

C.Matching

D.Blinding

E.Restriction

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Question 9 of 25

4.0 Points

Surgeons at Hospital A report that the mortality rate at
the end of a one-year follow-up after a new coronary bypass procedure is 15%.
At Hospital B, the surgeons report a one-year mortality rate of 8% for the
same procedure. Before concluding that the surgeons at Hospital B have vastly
superior skill, which of the following possible confounders would you
examine?

A.The
severity (stage) of disease of the patients at the two hospitals at
baseline

B.The
starting point of the one-year follow-up at both hospitals (after operation
versus after discharge)

C.Difference
in the post-operative care at the two hospitals

D.Equally
thorough follow-up for mortality

E.All
of the above

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Question 10 of 25

4.0 Points

Sensitivity and specificity of a screening test refer to
its:

A.reliability

B.validity

C.yield

D.repeatability

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Question 11 of 25

4.0 Points

Lead time bias is best described as:

A.an
apparently lower survival rate among persons screened compared to an
unscreened group.

B.an
actually longer survival time for persons identified during a screening
program because they were given an effective treatment.

C.a
similar survival time for persons identified during a screening program
relative to persons who are diagnosed by clinical symptoms.

D.an
apparently longer survival time among persons identified during a screening
program because they were identified at an earlier stage of their disease.

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Question 12 of 25

4.0 Points

The adverse consequences of using a screening test which
has a low specificity include:

A.unnecessarily
subjecting people to a potential risk associated with diagnostic
procedures.

B.possible
psychological trauma that accompanies suspicion of a disease.

C.increased
burden of further diagnostic services.

D.increased
costs of the screening test.

E.all
of the above

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Question 13 of 25

4.0 Points

The degree of agreement between several trained experts
refers to

A.internal
consistency

B.repeated
measures

C.concurrent
validity

D.inter-judge
reliability

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Question 14 of 25

4.0 Points

A test that determines whether disease is actually present
is a:

A.screening
test

B.diagnostic
test

C.reliability
test

D.none
of the above

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Question 15 of 25

4.0 Points

A person with an inapparent infection

A.can
transmit the infection to others.

B.is
a danger to family members but not to others in the community.

C.never
develops antibodies.

D.is
of no epidemiologic importance.

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Question 16 of 25

4.0 Points

The epidemiological triangle considers which factor(s) in
the pathogenesis of disease:

A.agent

B.host

C.environment

D.all
of the above

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Question 17 of 25

4.0 Points

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published
an article concerning the high rate of foot fungal disease in New Orleans. The
article explains that there has been a high rate of foot fungal disease in New Orleans for
decades. Foot fungal disease in New
Orleans is best described as

A.epidemic

B.endemic

C.incident

D.pathogenic

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Question 18 of 25

4.0 Points

An attack rate is an alternative incidence rate that is
used when

A.describing
the occurrence of food-borne illness or infectious diseases.

B.the
population at risk increases greatly over a short time period.

C.the
disease rapidly follows the exposure during a fixed time period.

D.all
of the above

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Question 19 of 25

4.0 Points

Host factors in the causation of disease include:

A.temperature
and humidity

B.chemicals
in the air, water, or food

C.genetic
factors

D.altitude

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Question 20 of 25

4.0 Points

An outbreak of salmonellosis occurred after an
epidemiology department luncheon, which was attended by 485 faculty and
staff. Assume everyone ate the same food items. Sixty-five people had fever
and diarrhea, five of these people were severely affected. Subsequent
laboratory tests on everyone who attended the luncheon revealed an additional
72. The attack rate of salmonellosis was:

A.13.4%

B.47.4%

C.28.2%

D.7.7%

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Question 21 of 25

4.0 Points

An outbreak of salmonellosis occurred after an
epidemiology department luncheon, which was attended by 485 faculty and
staff. Assume everyone ate the same food items. Sixty-five people had fever and
diarrhea, five of these people were severely affected. Subsequent laboratory
tests on everyone who attended the luncheon revealed an additional 72 cases.
The virulence of salmonellosis was:

A.13.4%

B.47.4%

C.28.2%

D.7.7%

E.3.6%

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Question 22 of 25

4.0 Points

Which of the following examples involves indirect
transmission of disease?

A.Malaria

B.Hepatitis
caused by needle sticks

C.HIV/AIDS

D.Pneumoconiosis

E.A
and B

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Question 23 of 25

4.0 Points

The ability of an agent to cause disease in the infected
host is referred to as:

A.infectivity

B.pathogenicity

C.virulence

D.toxigenicity

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Question 24 of 25

4.0 Points

Community A receives its water from several sources. The
water source responsible for causing an outbreak of disease X is unknown. The
best evidence to determine which suspected water supply is responsible would
be:

A.the
identity of the water supply providing water to the largest proportion of
cases.

B.the
relationship between quantity of water consumed and the severity of attack
for each individual.

C.the
identity of the water supply that has the greatest opportunity for
contamination during the epidemic.

D.the
attack rates for disease X in those who did and did not drink from each
water supply.

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Question 25 of 25

4.0 Points

The table below
shows the mumps experience of children in 390 families exposed to mumps by a
primary case within the family:

Population

Cases

Age
in years

Total

No.
susceptible before primary cases occurred

Primary

Secondary

2
− 4

300

250

100

50

5
− 9

450

420

204

87

10
− 19

152

84

25

15

The secondary attack rate among children aged two to four years is:

A.18%

B.20%

C.33%

D.50%

E.60%

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