QUESTION 2A _____________ is a type of study in which the investigator takes advantage of existing c

QUESTION 2A _____________ is a type of study in which the investigator takes advantage of existing circumstances that serve effectively as an experiment.Case-control studyRandomized clinical trialNatural experimentField trial1 points QUESTION 3Match each of the following study types to the appropriate characteristics – A. B. C. D. Compares exposed with nonexposed persons – A. B. C. D. Compares people who have a disease with people who do not have a disease – A. B. C. D. Subjects are randomized to exposure or non-exposure – A. B. C. D. Odds ratios can be calculatedA.Both cohort and case-control studiesB.Case-control studyC.Neither cohort nor case-control studiesD.Cohort studies4 points QUESTION 4In a case-control study of stroke, where cases are patients treated for stroke at a particular hospital, the best group of controls would come from:Anybody from the population who would be treated at that hospital if they had a strokeStroke patients at another hospitalDiabetes patients treated at that hospitalPeople who had died from other causes1 points QUESTION 5 If you are conducting a case control study and you select your cases based on existing (prevalent) cases of disease instead of incident (newly diagnosed) cases, how is this likely to influence your results?Cases are more likely to have shorter survival timesCases are more likely to have longer survival timesControls will have longer survival timesThe results will be biased away from the null hypothesis1 points QUESTION 6Nondifferential misclassification (where cases and controls are equally likely to forget details about their exposure histories) tends to produce estimates of effect that are:Underestimated (closer to the null value than they should be)Exaggerated (further from the null value than they should be)Sometimes exaggerated, sometimes underestimatedHighly variable1 points QUESTION 7When investigating an outbreak of a disease, where patients do not come from a well-defined group of people, which of the following study designs makes the most sense?Prospective cohortRetrospective cohortCase-controlCase-crossover1 points QUESTION 8In a nested case-control study,Cases and controls come from a previously defined cohort studyCases and controls come from an existing case-control studyCases act as their own controlsNone of the above1 points QUESTION 9The incidence of disease in exposed divided by the incidence of disease in the unexposed group is known as the:Absolute riskAttributable riskOdds RatioRelative Risk1 points QUESTION 10Relative risk can be calculated:In cohort studiesIn case-control studiesIn cross-sectional studiesAll of the above1 points QUESTION 11All of the following need to be satisfied for the odds ratio to represent a good estimate of the relative risk, EXCEPT:Cases are representative of all people with the diseaseControls are representative of all people without the diseaseThe disease does not occur frequentlyThe exposure does not occur frequently1 points QUESTION 12In a Matched Pairs case control study represented by the following 2×2 table, what is the formula for the odds ratio?ControlsExposedNot ExposedCasesExposedABNot ExposedCDA/DAD/BC(A/B)/(C/D)B/C