Question Points 1. Synaptic facilitation is a term that describes the process of synapses: a. destro

Question Points
1. Synaptic
facilitation is a term that describes the process of synapses:
a. destroying other
synapses to explain forgetting.
b. creating new
glial cells to make room for more memories.
c. changing the
brain to form new memories.
d. modifying
existing engrams leading to false memories.

2. Pavlov
found that a neutral stimulus was more likely to produce dogs to salivate if
the stimulus:
a. was delivered on
a variable interval schedule.
b. positively
reinforced salivation.
c. and food were
frequently associated.
d. followed the
salivation by one second.

3. In
Pavlov’s classic studies with dogs and digestion, what was the response that
Pavlov measured?
a. Amount of food
b. Footsteps in the
c. Sound of a
d. Amount of

4. A student
comes to college and is extremely anxious about doing poorly and flunking out.
To calm her fears, the student studies hard and receives all A’s the first
semester. This student has been:
a. positively
b. negatively
c. classically
d. vicariously

5. The study
of “Little Albert” is a famous example of the study of learned that
was conducted by:
a. Pavlov.
b. Watson.
c. Thorndike.
d. Bandura.

6. If you
are going to use punishment, which of the following would be recommendations
based on psychological research?
a. Do not use
physical punishment.
b. Punish behavior
after a time delay.
c. Only deliver half
the punishment necessary.
d. Punish the
person, not the behavior.

7. An
associative network of beliefs, knowledge, and expectations is known as a:
a. register.
b. schema.
c. hybrid.
d. collection.

8. According
to the spreading activation model of memory, which memories would be easiest to
a. Memories that are
pleasant rather than emotionally negative
b. Memories that are
closely associated with the memory cue
c. Memories that
contrast strongly with one’s expectations
d. Memories that are
learned early in life

9. When a
false memory occurs, this means that:
a. memory for the
real episode has been falsified.
b. true memories
have already been repressed.
c. someone is lying
about what actually happened.
d. something is
remembered that never happened.
10. In
classical conditioning, an unlearned, inborn reaction to an unconditioned
stimulus is a(n):
a. unconditioned
b. conditioned
c. unconditioned
d. conditioned
11. A fleck of
dust or dirt in your eye automatically causes the eye to produce tears to wash
out the dirt. If this was part of a classical conditioning experiment, the
fleck of dust or dirt would be labeled as the:
a. unconditioned
b. unconditioned
c. conditioned
d. conditioned
12. The theory
of memory that suggests that the basis of learning and memory is due to unique
patterns of neuronal activity causing changes in synapses to occur is known as:
a. spreading
b. retrograde
c. psychogenic
d. synaptic
13. The notion
that a person would forget something because that memory would be threatening
to the individual in some way is known as the theory of:
a. motivated
b. spreading
c. associative
d. synaptic
14. In
psychological research, the idea of informed consent is that participants:
a. have a right to
know the results of the study after it is complete.
b. need to be aware
of the risks and benefits of participating in research.
c. should not be
pressured into participating in a research experiment.
d. can expect the
researchers to keep the outcomes of the study confidential.
15. One of the
criticisms against the research on motivated forgetting is that:
a. stressful events
can cause forgetting by biological means.
b. case studies of
motivated forgetting involved ordinary life events.
c. adults frequently
fail to report traumatic childhood experiences.
d. the concept
contradicts well-established principles of Freudian psychoanalysis.
16. Slot
machines are set to pay off on the average of once in every 1,000,000 plays.
This is an example of a ______ schedule of reinforcement.
a. variable-ratio
b. fixed-ratio
c. variable-interval
d. fixed-interval
17. When
people forget, they are not only distorting information, but may also be
remembering events that never occurred. This is consistent with the idea of:
a. false memories.
b. new memories.
c. associative
d. congruent memory.
18. Learning
is defined as a _______ change in behavior due to _______.
a. temporary;
b. biological;
c. relatively
permanent; experience
d. biological;
19. Simple
forms of learning, such as classical conditioning of the gill withdrawal reflex
in the sea snail, appear to physically take place:
a. in the creature’s
b. only in creatures
without a brain.
c. at the synaptic
d. outside of the
nervous system.
20. Korsakoff’s
syndrome patients sometimes experience both anterograde and retrograde amnesia.
This syndrome is caused by:
a. the lack of the
neurotransmitter serotonin.
b. lack of oxygen
during stressful events.
c. traumatic brain
injury and blood loss.
d. vitamin loss due
to the diet of chronic alcoholics.